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Ptolemy and I
Whatever the truth behind this, the young king was forced to depend heavily on his Ptolemaic support and even struck portraits with the characteristic features of king Ptolemy I.
His third wife was the Greek Ptolemaic Princess Theoxena, who was the second daughter of Berenice I from her first husband Philip and was a stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter.
* Cleopatra Selene I ( c. 135 – 130 BC ), daughter of Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII Physcon
He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I ( 323 – 283 BC ).
He was brought to the university at Alexandria by Ptolemy I, King of Egypt.
Pallas Athena | Wisdom gives advice ; with Ptolemy I Soter, a master in objectivity in his book on Alexander the Great, below in profile.
The now lost history of Alexander's campaigns by the diadoch Ptolemy I ( 367 – 283 BC ) may represent the first historical work composed by a ruler.
To deter this problem, Ptolemy I had the lighthouse built.
The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter ( 323 – 283 BC ) or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II ( 283 – 246 BC ).
The Ancient Library of Alexandria According to the earliest source of information, the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas, the library was initially organized by Demetrius of Phaleron, a student of Aristotle, under the reign of Ptolemy I Soter ( ca. 367 BC — ca. 283 BC ).
The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter ( 323 – 283 BC ) or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II ( 283 – 246 BC ).
It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, and there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself King of Egypt in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter.
In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as " Soter " ( saviour ).
His son and successor, Antiochus I Soter, was left with an enormous realm consisting of nearly all of the Asian portions of the Empire, but faced with Antigonus II Gonatas in Macedonia and Ptolemy II Philadelphus in Egypt, he proved unable to pick up where his father had left off in conquering the European portions of Alexander's empire.
Antiochus I ( reigned 281 – 261 BC ) and his son and successor Antiochus II Theos ( reigned 261 – 246 BC ) were faced with challenges in the west, including repeated wars with Ptolemy II and a Celtic invasion of Asia Minor — distracting attention from holding the eastern portions of the Empire together.
** Ptolemy I Soter ( 305 BC – 282 BC ) and his wives Eurydice and
** Ptolemy II Philadelphos ( 284 BC – 246 BC ) and his wives Arsinoe I and Arsinoe II Philadelphos
** Ptolemy III Euergetes I ( 246 BC – 222 BC ) and his wife Berenice II
** Ptolemy V Epiphanes ( 204 BC – 180 BC ) and his wife Cleopatra I
* Cleopatra III of Egypt assassinated by her son Ptolemy X Alexander I ( b. 161 BC )
It is originally from the Greek Μουσεῖον ( Mouseion ), which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses ( the patron divinities in Greek mythology of the arts ), and hence a building set apart for study and the arts, especially the Musæum ( institute ) for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BCE.

Ptolemy and ruler
These invaders appeared in Asia Minor in 278 – 277 BC ; others invaded Macedonia, killed the Ptolemaic ruler Ptolemy Ceraunus but were eventually ousted by Antigonus Gonatas, the grandson of the defeated Diadoch Antigonus the One-Eyed.
Ptolemy Apion, the last Greek ruler, bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which formally annexed the region in 74 BC and joined it to Crete as a Roman province.
The stele was erected after the coronation of King Ptolemy V, and was inscribed with a decree that established the divine cult of the new ruler.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes ( reigned 204 – 181 BC ), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and his wife and sister Arsinoe, had become ruler at the age of five after the sudden death of both of his parents, murdered, according to contemporary sources, in a conspiracy that involved Ptolemy IV's mistress Agathoclea.
Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka the Great, is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court.
* 164 BC – Cleopatra Thea Euergetis (" Benefactress "), ruler of the Seleucid kingdom from 125 BC, a daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt and his sister / wife Cleopatra II ( d. 121 BC ) ( approximate date )
* 181 BC – Ptolemy V Epiphanes, Ptolemaic dynasty ruler of Egypt who has reigned from 204 BC
* Ptolemy XII deposes Cleopatra V, and becomes sole ruler.
* Cyrene is left to the people of Rome by its ruler Ptolemy Apion.
The Roman Senate, along with Attalus II Philadelphus of Pergamum and Ptolemy VI Philometor of Egypt, support Alexander Balas and he becomes the ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
* John Hyrcanus becomes high priest and prince ( ruler ) of Judea, until 104 BC, following the murder of his father Simon Maccabaeus by Ptolemy the son of Abubus in 135 BC.
When the Seleucid ruler captures the important eastern Mediterranean sea ports of Seleucia-in-Pieria, Tyre, and Ptolemais, Ptolemy IV's advisor, Sosibius, and the Ptolemaic court enter into delaying negotiations with the enemy, while the Ptolemaic army is reorganized and intensively drilled.
Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler.
Circa 48 BC, Cleopatra's younger brother Ptolemy XIII became sole ruler.
At the Donations of Alexandria in late 34 BC, following Antony's conquest of Armenia, Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus ; Alexander Helios was crowned ruler of Armenia, Media, and Parthia ; Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya ; and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia.
Ptolemy III Euergetes, (, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs, reigned 246 BC – 222 BC ) was the third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
* Cleopatra Thea Euergetis (" Benefactress "), ruler of the Seleucid kingdom from 125 BC, a daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt and his sister / wife Cleopatra II ( d. 121 BC ) ( approximate date )

Ptolemy and Egypt
Alexander's claims were recognized by the Roman Senate, Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt and others.
Pompey fled from Pharsalus to Egypt, where he was assassinated on the order of Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII.
* Claudius Ptolemy 83 – c. 168 AD, Roman Empire ( Roman Egypt )
The Decree of Canopus, which was issued by the pharaoh Ptolemy III, Euergetes of Ancient Egypt in 239 BC, decreed a solar leap day system ; an Egyptian leap year was not adopted until 25 BC, when the Roman Emperor Augustus successfully instituted a reformed Alexandrian calendar.
* 217 BC – Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom.
As for Cleopatra, she was proclaimed Queen of Kings and Queen of Egypt, to rule with Caesarion ( Ptolemy XV Caesar, son of Cleopatra by Julius Caesar ), King of Kings and King of Egypt.
Prince Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt, 36 BC – 29 BC, died without issue ( presumably )
* 196 BC – Ptolemy V ascends to the throne of Egypt.
Claudius Ptolemy (;, Klaudios Ptolemaios ; ; AD 90 – AD 168 ) was a Greek-Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek.
Although Abu Ma ' shar al-Balkhi | Abu Ma ' shar believed Ptolemy to be one of the Ptolemaic dynasty | Ptolemies who ruled Egypt after the conquest of Alexander the Great | Alexander the title ‘ King Ptolemy ’ is generally viewed as a mark of respect for Ptolemy's elevated standing in science.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen ; the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship.
Perhaps for no other reason than the association of name, the 9th century Persian astronomer Abu Ma ' shar assumed Ptolemy to be member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the ten kings of Egypt who followed Alexander were wise " and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest ".
The Ptolemaic dynasty, (, sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagides,, from the name of Ptolemy I's father, Lagus ) was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy, one of the six somatophylakes ( bodyguards ) who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC.
The conspirators effectively ruled Egypt as Ptolemy V's guardians, until, two years later, a revolt broke out under the general Tlepolemus and Agathoclea and her family were lynched by a mob in Alexandria.
Meanwhile, in the south of Egypt, there was a long-standing revolt that had begun during the reign of Ptolemy IV, led by Horwennefer and by his successor Ankhwennefer.
* 44 BC – Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
* 48 BC – Pompey the Great is assassinated on the orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt.

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