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Saadia and Gaon
Among well known ( generally non-kabbalist or anti-kabbalist ) Rabbis who rejected the idea of reincarnation are Saadia Gaon, David Kimhi, Hasdai Crescas, Yedayah Bedershi ( early 14th century ), Joseph Albo, Abraham ibn Daud, the Rosh and Leon de Modena.
Saadia Gaon, in Emunoth ve-Deoth ( Hebrew: " beliefs and opinions ") concludes Section VI with a refutation of the doctrine of metempsychosis ( reincarnation ).
While refuting reincarnation, the Saadia Gaon further states that Jews who hold to reincarnation have adopted non-Jewish beliefs.
( Some claim this section draws heavily on Aristotelian science and metaphysics ; others suggest that it is within the tradition of Saadia Gaon.
Major Jewish philosophers include Solomon ibn Gabirol, Saadia Gaon, Judah Halevi, Maimonides, and Gersonides.
Saʻadiah ben Yosef Gaon ( Saadia Gaon ) identifies the definitive trait of " a cock girded about the loins " within Proverbs 30: 31 ( Douay – Rheims Bible ) as " the honesty of their behavior and their success ", identifying a spiritual purpose of a religious vessel within that religious and spiritual instilling schema of purpose and use, within Judeo-Christian traditions.
Half a century later Rav Saadia Gaon, also of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic.
The most important writers are Yose ben Yoseh, probably in the 6th century, chiefly known for his compositions for Yom Kippur ; Eleazar Kalir, the founder of the payyetanic style, perhaps in the 7th century ; Saadia Gaon ; and the Spanish school, consisting of Joseph ibn Abitur ( died in 970 ), ibn Gabirol, Isaac Gayyath, Moses ibn Ezra, Abraham ibn Ezra and Judah ha-Levi, Moses ben Nahman ( Nahmanides ) and Isaac Luria.
In Yemen, however, rather than abandoning the Aramaic targum during the public reading of the Torah, it was supplemented by a third version, namely the translation of the Torah into Arabic by Saadia Gaon ( called the Tafsir, though this Gaon was born in prominently Jewish at the time Sura Iraq, Babylon, moved to Egypt, arguably lead those two communities, and died in Jaffa ancestral Israel, he was not known to have ever been to the Jewish villages of Yemen.
Philoponus ' arguments against an infinite past were used by the early Muslim philosopher, Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ); the Jewish philosopher, Saadia Gaon ( Saadia ben Joseph ); and the Muslim theologian, Al-Ghazali ( Algazel ).
* Saadia Gaon, Egyptian-born rabbi
* Saadia Gaon compiles his siddur ( Jewish prayer book ) in Iraq.
Saʻadiah ben Yosef Gaon ( Saadia Gaon ) identified the definitive trait of " a cock girded about the loins " within Proverbs 30: 31 ( Douay – Rheims Bible ) as " the honesty of their behavior and their success ", identifying a spiritual purpose of a religious vessel within that religious and spiritual instilling schema of purpose and use.
* 9th-12th centuries — Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ), Saadia Gaon ( Saadia ben Joseph ) and Al-Ghazali ( Algazel ) support a universe that has a finite past and develop two logical arguments against the notion of an infinite past, one of which is later adopted by Immanuel Kant
Despite the rivalry of ben Naphtali and the opposition of Saadia Gaon, the most eminent representative of the Babylonian school of criticism, ben Asher's codex became recognized as the standard text of the Bible.
* Sefat Yeter, in defense of Saadia Gaon against Dunash ben Labrat, whose criticism of Saadia, Ibn Ezra had brought with him from Egypt ; published by Bislichs 1838 and Lippmann 1843.
; 940: In Iraq, Saadia Gaon compiles his siddur ( Jewish prayer book ).
The oldest Jewish religio-philosophical work preserved in Arabic is that of Saadia Gaon ( 892-942 ), Emunot ve-Deot, " The Book of Beliefs and Opinions ".

Saadia and who
Other signatories added their own touches, including Saadia Kobashi who added the phrase " HaLevy ", referring to the tribe of Levi.
Here Saadia controverts the Mutakallamin, who considered the soul an " accident " arad ( compare Guide for the Perplexed i. 74 ), and employs the following one of their premises to justify his position: " Only a substance can be the substratum of an accident " ( that is, of a non-essential property of things ).
Saadia Gaon had taught in his book Emunot v ' Deot that Jews who believe in gilgul have adopted a non-Jewish belief.
Here Saadia controverts the Mutakallamin, who considered the soul an " accident " arad ( compare Guide for the Perplexed i. 74 ), and employs the following one of their premises to justify his position: " Only a substance can be the substratum of an accident " ( that is, of a non-essential property of things ).
Men were sunken in the sea of doubt and overwhelmed by the waves of spiritual error, and there was none to help them ; so that Saadia felt himself called and duty bound to save them from their peril by strengthening the faithful in their belief and by removing the fears of those who were in doubt.
Tradition regarding the location of Caphtor was preserved in the Aramaic Targums and the commentary of Maimonides which place it at Caphutkia in the vicinity of Damietta ( at the eastern edge of the Nile delta near classical Pelusium ) and by the tenth century commentator Saadia Gaon and Benjamin of Tudela, the twelfth-century Jewish traveller from Navarre, who both wrote that Damietta was Caphtor.
An important later Yemenite authority was Rabbi Yiḥyah Qafiḥ's grandson, Rabbi Yosef Qafiḥ, who edited many important works by Maimonides and Saadia Gaon as well as issuing two new editions of the Baladi prayer book.
They support their rejection with writings of Saadia Gaon ( 892-942 ) who dismissed reincarnation as an unauthentic Jewish belief.
This was the program of Jewish rationalist philosophers such as Saadia Gaon, Maimonides ( who was influenced by Ibn Sina aka Avicenna ), and Gersonides ( who was influenced by Ibn Roshd, aka Averroes ).
It lies in the vicinity of Fayyum, the hometown of the Jewish commentator Saadia Gaon who identified Nachal Mitzrayim with the wadi of El-Arish.
The most notable author among the Geonim was Saadia Gaon, who wrote Biblical commentaries and many other works: he is best known for the philosophical work Emunoth ve-Deoth.
Among well known Rabbis who rejected the idea of reincarnation are Saadia Gaon, David Kimhi, Hasdai Crescas, Yedayah Bedershi ( early 14th century ), Joseph Albo, Abraham ibn Daud and Leon de Modena.
Here Saadia contradicts the Motekallamin, who considered the soul an " accident " ( compare " Moreh ," i. 74 ), and employs the following one of their premises to justify his position: " Only a substance can be the substratum of an accident " ( that is, of a non-essential property of things ).
Saadia Marciano, one of the movement's founders, chose the name " Black Panthers " in 1971 when Angela Davis, one of the African American Black Panthers, came to visit Israel where she met with Marciano, who then adopted the name.

Saadia and translated
Saadia Gaon, David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas, Maimonides, and Thomas Aquinas, to name a few, knew of at least some of the Mutazilite work, particularly Avicennism and Averroism, and the Renaissance and the use of empirical methods were inspired at least in part by Arabic translations of Greek, Jewish, Persian and Egyptian works translated into Latin during the Renaissance of the 12th century, and taken during the Reconquista in 1492.
" The Book of Beliefs and Opinions " ( Emunos VeDeyot ) by Saadia Gaon, translated by Samuel Rosenblatt, Yale University Press, 1948

Saadia and into
Later Arabic translations also appeared ; one featured a further Samaritan revision of Saadia Gaon's translation to bring it into greater conformity with the Samaritan Pentateuch and others were based upon Arabic Pentateuchal translations used by Christians.
According to a classification borrowed by Saadia from the Motazilites but based upon an essentially Jewish view, the commandments are divided into those of reason and of revelation, although even the latter may be explained rationally, as is shown by numerous examples.
He then discusses ten questions bearing on this doctrine, which are of interest as " affording an insight into popular views that then prevailed, and which, despite their singularity, could not be ignored even by such a man as Saadia " ( Guttmann ).
Judah left a son ( whose name is not mentioned ) twelve years of age, whom Saadia took into his house and educated.
The interest which his commentaries present lies chiefly in the accumulation of material for the history of the differences between traditional Judaism and the Karaites ; for he enters into lengthy disputes with traditional rabbis, especially with Saadia, from whose commentaries on the Bible and polemical works, including some no longer in existence, he gives many extracts.

Saadia and Arabic
The oldest was an adaptation of Saadia Gaon's Arabic translation of the Jewish Torah.
The text also contains liturgical poetry by Saadia, as well as Arabic language commentary.
Saadia is a Jewish and Arabic name.
In a later edition, Saadia added the Arabic translation of each word, and also included passages concerning various " memorable subjects of the poets ," and named the work in its new form " Kitab al-Shi ' r.
In his " Moznayim " ( Preface ) Abraham ibn Ezra mentions him between Saadia Gaon and Judah ibn Ḳuraish, and speaks of him as the author of a book " compounded of Hebrew and Arabic.
" He made great contributions to the knowledge of Saadia, and planned a complete edition of Saadia's works in Arabic and French.
He collaborated with his father in the great edition of Saadia and the edition of Abu al-Walid, and also produced a number of important editions of other Arabic writers.

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