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Sakhalin was claimed by both Russia and Japan in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, which led to bitter disputes between the two countries over control of the island.
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Sakhalin and was
The southern half of Sakhalin was acquired by Japan as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 – 05, but at the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviets declared war on Japan and took possession of the Kuril islands and southern Sakhalin.
After Korean Air Lines Flight 007, carrying 269 people, was shot down in 1983 after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace, in the vicinity of Sakhalin and Moneron Islands, President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use, once it was sufficiently developed, as a common good.
Despite Japan's demands for the entirety of Sakhalin and a war indemnity, and Russia's outright refusal, peace was attained through the actions of the participants, including Roosevelt's back-channel communications.
Japan gained a great deal from the treaty, but it was not what the Japanese public had been led to expect, since Japan's initial negotiating position had demanded all of Sakhalin and a monetary indemnity as well.
Mamiya Rinzō and Gennady Nevelskoy determined that the Sakhalin was indeed an island separated from the mainland by a narrow strait.
On 18 December 2011 the Russian oil drilling rig Kolskaya capsized and sank in a storm in the Sea of Okhotsk, some 124 km from Sakhalin Island, where it was being towed from Kamchatka.
Under the Ming Dynasty, commerce in Northeast Asia and Sakhalin was placed under the " system for subjugated peoples ", or ximin tizhi.
According to Wei Yuan's work Military history of the Qing Dynasty (), the Later Jin sent 400 troops to Sakhalin in 1616, after a newfound interest because of northern Japanese contacts with the area, but later withdrew as it was considered there was no threat from the island.
A Japanese settlement in the southern end of Sakhalin of Ootomari was established in 1679 in a colonization attempt.
The first European known to visit Sakhalin was Martin Gerritz de Vries, who mapped Cape Patience and Cape Aniva on the island's east coast in 1643.
A katorga ( penal colony ) was established by Russia on Sakhalin in 1857, but the southern part of the island was held by the Japanese until the 1875 Treaty of Saint Petersburg ( 1875 ), when they ceded it to Russia in exchange for the Kuril Islands.
South Sakhalin was administrated by Japan as Karafuto Prefecture (), with the capital Toyohara, today's Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, and had a large number of migrants from Korea.
The Soviet attack on South Sakhalin was part of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation and started on 11 August 1945, after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and four days before the Surrender of Japan.
It was not until the 113th Rifle Brigade and the 365th Independent Naval Infantry Rifle Battalion from Sovetskaya Gavan landed on 16 August at — a seashore village of western Sakhalin — that the Soviets broke the Japanese defence line.
On September 1, 1983, the Korean Air Flight 007, a South Korean civilian airliner, flew over Sakhalin and was shot down by the Soviet Union, just west of Sakhalin Island, near the smaller Moneron Island ; the Soviet Union claimed it was a spy plane.
Sakhalin and claimed
Some territories of Sakhalin Oblast ( four islands, the southern ones of the Kuril archipelago ) are claimed by Japan.
Sakhalin and by
The first problem that caused the pause in reconnaissance flights took place on August 30, an Air Force Strategic Air Command ( SAC ) U-2 flew over Sakhalin Island in the Far East by mistake.
According to Yuanshi, the official history of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols militarily subdued the Guwei ( 骨嵬, Gǔwéi ), and by 1308, all inhabitants of Sakhalin had surrendered to the Mongols.
Following the introduction of Chinese political and commercial institutions in the Amur region, by the middle of the 15th century the Sakhalin Ainu were making frequent tributary visits to Chinese-controlled outposts.
This map from a 1773 atlas, based on the: commons: File: CEM-44-La-Chine-la-Tartarie-Chinoise-et-le-Thibet-1734-Amur-2572. jpg | earlier work by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d ' Anville | d ' Anville, who in his turn made use of the information collected by Jesuit missions in China | Jesuits in 1709, asserts the existence of Sakhalin — but only assigns to it the northern half of the island and its northeastern coast ( with Cape Patience, discovered by Maarten Gerritsz Vries | de Vries in 1643 ).
As a result, many 17th century maps showed a rather strangely shaped Sakhalin, which included only the northern half of the island ( with Cape Patience ), while Cape Aniva discovered by de Vries and the " Black Cape " ( Cape Crillon ) were thought to be part of the mainland.
The Soviets completed the conquest of Sakhalin on 25 August 1945 by occupying the capital, Toyohara.
Japan renounced its claims of sovereignty over southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Treaty of San Francisco ( 1951 ), but claims that four islands currently administered by Russia were not subject to this renunciation.
Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Mamiya Strait or Strait of Tartary, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Hokkaidō, ( Japan ) by the Soya Strait or La Pérouse Strait.
The capital Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, a city of about 175, 000, has a large Korean minority, typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans, who were forcibly brought by the Japanese during World War II to work in the coal mines.
The 400, 000 Japanese inhabitants of Sakhalin ( including all indigenous Ainu ) were deported following the conquest of the southern portion of the island by the Soviet Union in 1945 at the end of World War II.
Nearly all the cargo arriving for Sakhalin ( and the Kuril Islands ) is delivered by cargo boats, or by ferries, in railway wagons, through the SSC train ferry from the mainland port of Vanino to Kholmsk.
Sakhalin and both
Their most widely known ethnonym is derived from the word ainu, which means " human " ( particularly as opposed to kamui, divine beings ), basically neither ethnicity nor the name of a race, in the Hokkaidō dialects of the Ainu language ; Emishi ( Ebisu ) and Ezo ( Yezo ) ( both ) are Japanese terms, which are believed to derive from another word for " human ", which otherwise survived in Sakhalin Ainu as enciw or enju.
Russia wasted little time after the Triple Intervention to move men and materials down into the Liaodong to start building a railroad from both ends — Port Arthur and Harbin, as it already had railway construction in progress across northern Inner Manchuria to shorten the rail route to Russia's sole Pacific Ocean naval base at Sakhalin Island, a port closed by ice four months of each year.
There are also small numbers of Japanese people in Russia some whose heritage date back to the times when both countries shared the territories of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands ; some Japanese communists settled in the Soviet Union, including Mutsuo Hakamada, the brother of former Japanese Communist Party chairman Satomi Hakamada whose daughter Irina Hakamada is a notable Russian political figure.
Some areas, however, such as the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, northern Idaho and northwestern Montana, Rocky Mountain Trench in BC and Montana, and the Russian Far East ( Ussuri, Manchuria, Sakhalin ) in Asia have more of continental climate but get enough precipitation in both rain and snow to harbor significant pockets of temperate rainforest.
Sakhalin and Russia
* 1875 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg between Japan and Russia is ratified, providing for the exchange of Sakhalin for the Kuril Islands.
Railways in Russia, unlike in the most of the world, use broad gauge of, with the exception of 957 km on Sakhalin island using narrow gauge of.
Roosevelt first proposed that a neutral committee propose concessions that Russia would cede to Japan, but after the idea's rejection, Roosevelt convinced Japan to lay down its demand for an indemnity and accept the southern half of Sakhalin rather than the island as a whole.
It is part of Russia, and is Russia's largest island, and is administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast.
Sakhalin, which is about one fifth the size of Japan, is just off the east coast of Russia, and just north of Japan.
Following the Opium War, Russia forced China to sign the Treaty of Aigun ( 1858 ) and Convention of Peking ( 1860 ), under which China lost to Russia all claims to all territories north of Heilongjiang ( Amur ) and east of Ussuri, including Sakhalin.
Sakhalin is connected by regular flights to Moscow, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and other cities of Russia.
Russia is in the process of building a pipeline across the Tatar Strait from Sakhalin Island to De-Kastri terminal on the Russian mainland.
* La Perouse Strait, a strait between the Russia island of Sakhalin and the Japanese island of Hokkaido
Strait of Tartary ( Gulf of Tartary, Gulf of Tatary, Tatar Strait, Tartar Strait, Strait of Tartar, also Chinese: 韃靼海峽, Japanese:, Mamiya Strait, Russian Татарский пролив ) is a strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia ( South-East Russia ), connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on the north with the Sea of Japan on the south.
alt = The waters that are bordered by Sakhalin in the north-east, Japan in the east and south, Korea in the west and continental Russia in the north are marked with a question mark.
Japan made territorial delimitation treaty with Russia in 1875, Japan gained all the Kuril islands in exchange for Sakhalin island.
As a result, Russia lost the part of Sakhalin Island south of 50 degrees North latitude ( which became the Karafuto Prefecture ), as well as many mineral rights in Manchuria.
As Irina Ratushinskaya writes in the introduction to that work: " Abandoning everything, he travelled to the distant island of Sakhalin, the most feared place of exile and forced labour in Russia at that time.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (,, or ; ; Japanese: ), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaidō, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean.