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Saxon raids on the southern and eastern shores of England had been sufficiently alarming by the late 3rd century for the Romans to build the Saxon Shore forts, and subsequently to establish the role of the Count of the Saxon Shore to command the defence against these incursions.
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Saxon and raids
After the fall of Great Moravia, the rulers of the Bohemian duchy had to deal both with continuous raids by the Magyars and the forces of the Saxon duke and East Frankish king Henry the Fowler, who had started several eastern campaigns into the adjacent lands of the Polabian Slavs, homeland of Wenceslaus ' mother.
Renewed Viking raids from 1016 stalled the Saxon efforts and very little from the Saxon abbey was incorporated in the later forms.
Burgh Castle is the site of one of several Roman forts constructed to hold cavalry as a defence against Saxon raids up the rivers of the east and south coasts of southern Britain ( the Saxon Shore ).
Starting in 1995, Hampshire Police began a series of at least 56 raids, code named ' Operation Washington ', that eventually resulted in the August to November 1997 Portsmouth trial of Green Anarchist editors Booth, Saxon Wood, Noel Molland and Paul Rogers, as well as Animal Liberation Front ( ALF ) Press Officer Robin Webb and Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group ( ALFSG ) newsletter editor Simon Russell.
Starting in 1995, the Hampshire Police under ' Operation Washington ' began a series of at least 56 raids, which eventually resulted in the August to November 1997 Portsmouth trial of Green Anarchist editors Stephen Booth, Saxon Wood, Noel Molland and Paul Rogers, as well as Animal Liberation Front Press Officer Robin Webb and Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group newsletter editor Simon Russell.
Starting in 1995, the Hampshire police under " Operation Washington " began a series of at least 56 raids, which resulted in the August – November 1997 trial in Portsmouth of Green Anarchist editors Steven Booth, Saxon Burchnall-Wood, Noel Molland, and Paul Rogers, as well as the ALF UK press officer Robin Webb and ALF SG newsletter editor Simon Russell.
In the 9th century Scandinavian peoples made Viking raids on the monasteries and towns all along the coast and later conquered the Saxon Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.
Nonetheless settlements very close by are attested earlier, with the banks of the Teign estuary having been in Saxon hands since at least 682, a battle between the Ancient Britons and Saxons being recorded on Haldon in 927, and Danish raids having occurred on the Teign estuary in 1001.
The Bayeux Gallery contains the UK's only copy of the famous Bayeux Tapestry, made in 1885, together with information on the history of Saxon migration and Viking raids in the local area.
A 10th century document called the Burghal Hidage cites 30 burhs in Wessex and three in Mercia ( then under the domination of the West Saxon kings ), built to defend the region against Viking raids.
According to Giazotto, he obtained the document shortly after the end of World War II from the Saxon State Library in Dresden, which − though its buildings were destroyed in the bombing raids of February and March 1945 by the British and American Air Forces − had evacuated and preserved most of its collection.
Saxon and on
And it is this, particularly the establishment of archaeology and place-name studies on a scientific basis, which are immediately pertinent to the Saxon Shore.
In Gaul the Saxon element on its Saxon Shore was plainly visible because there the Saxons were an intrusive element in the population.
After the death of his brother-in-law, Henry II, margrave of a small area on the Elbe called the Saxon Northern March, in 1128, Albert, disappointed at not receiving this fief himself, attacked Udo, the heir, and was consequently deprived of Lusatia by Lothar.
Characteristically, all of Alfred's innovations were firmly rooted in traditional West Saxon practice, drawing as they did upon the three so-called ‘ common burdens ' of bridge work, fortress repair and service on the king's campaigns that all holders of bookland and royal loanland owed the Crown.
There was a royal palace at Cheddar during the Saxon period, which was used on three occasions in the 10th century to host the Witenagemot.
Near Padstow, a Roman site of some importance now lies buried under the sands on the opposite side of the Camel estuary near St. Enodoc's Church, and may have been a western coastal equivalent of a Saxon Shore Fort.
The Bagaudae had been easily suppressed, but Carausius, the man he had put in charge of operations against Saxon and Frankish pirates on the Saxon Shore, had begun keeping the goods seized from the pirates for himself.
From his sophomore year he additionally began to focus on Germanic languages completing coursework in Gothic, Old High German, Old Saxon, Icelandic, Dutch, Swedish and Danish.
Joining him are other competitors including Roper ( John Saxon ), a down-on-his-luck white American playboy-gambler on the run from the mob, and Williams ( Jim Kelly ), an African-American activist on the run after defending himself against two racist white policemen in Los Angeles.
He was the eldest son of Prince John, ( who succeeded his brother Frederick Augustus II on the Saxon throne as King John in 1854 ) by his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria.
These troubles outside of his Saxon possessions did not prevent George from bestowing much care on the government of the ducal territory proper.
The region finally became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms.
As with the Saxon system, these men were charged with uncovering the facts of the case on their own rather than listening to arguments in court.
Research in the 20th century has focused on dating the manuscripts ( 19th-century scholars tended to date them older ); locating where the manuscripts were created — there were seven major scriptoria from which they originate: Winchester, Exeter, Worcester, Abingdon, Durham, and two Canterbury houses, Christ Church and St. Augustine's Abbey ; and identifying the regional dialects used: Northumbrian, Mercian, Kentish, West Saxon ( the last being the main dialect ).
St Edward the Confessor, the penultimate Saxon monarch of England, built a royal palace on Thorney Island just west of the City of London at about the same time as he built Westminster Abbey ( 1045 – 50 ).
* Hywel ap Rhys ( died 1231 ) spent many years as a hostage at the court of Henry II and on his return became known as Hywel Sais ( Hywel the Saxon, i. e. Englishman ).
In order to defend against Saxon raiders, the Romans created a military district called the Litus Saxonicum (" Saxon Coast ") on both sides of the English Channel.
According to the Vita Lebuini antiqua, an important source for early Saxon history, the Saxons held an annual council at Marklo where they " confirmed their laws, gave judgment on outstanding cases, and determined by common counsel whether they would go to war or be in peace that year.
Saxon and southern
Though there are many unanswered questions about the chronology and activities of the early West Saxon rulers, it is clear that Ceawlin was one of the key figures in the final Anglo-Saxon conquest of southern Britain.
German regional cuisine can be divided into many varieties such as Bavarian cuisine ( southern Germany ), Thuringian ( central Germany ), Lower Saxon cuisine or those of Saxony-Anhalt.
A string of forts were built along the coast of southern Britain to control piracy ; and over the following hundred years they increased in number, becoming the Saxon Shore Forts.
The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law ( Saxony, Westphalia, Hanover, and northern Germany ), while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire ( Franconia, Swabia, the Rhine, and southern Germany ).
Saxon raiders had been harassing the eastern and southern shores of Britannia for centuries before, prompting the construction of a string of coastal forts called the Litora Saxonica or Saxon Shore, and many Saxons and other folk had been permitted to settle in these areas as farmers long before the end of Roman rule in Britannia.
The Bohemian natio included Bohemians, Moravians, southern Slavs, and Hungarians ; the Bavarian included Austrians, Swabians, natives of Franconia and of the Rhine provinces ; the Polish included Silesians, Poles, Russians ; the Saxon included inhabitants of the Margravate of Meissen, Thuringia, Upper and Lower Saxony, Denmark, and Sweden.
He was unable to retain the territorial gains of his predecessor, Cædwalla, who had brought much of southern England under his control and expanded West Saxon territory substantially.
Holsteinisch is a Northern Low Saxon dialect spoken in Holstein, the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany.
In southern England more widely, shires emerged from earlier sub-kingdoms as part of the administrative structure of Wessex, which then imposed its system of shires, boroughs ( or burhs ) and ealdormen on Mercia after it came under West Saxon control during the 9th century.
Sir Frank Stenton described it as " One of the most decisive battles of English history ", effectively ending the Mercian supremacy over the English kingdoms and establishing West Saxon dominance in southern England.
His wife, Thyra, is credited with the completion of the Danevirke, a wall between Denmark's southern border and its unfriendly Saxon neighbors to the south.
Old Frisian retains th in all positions for longer than Old Dutch and Old Saxon do, showing the gradual spread of the shift from th to d from south to north, beginning in southern Germany in the 9th century as part of the High German consonant shift, but not reaching Frisian until the 13th or 14th century.
Indeed, the siting of the Saxon Guildhall here was probably due to the amphitheatre's remains Excavations by MOLAS in 2000 at the entrance to Guildhall Yard exposed remains of the great 13th-century gatehouse built directly over the southern entrance to the Roman amphitheatre, which raises the possibility that enough of the Roman structure survived to influence the siting not only of the gatehouse and Guildhall itself but also of the church of St Lawrence Jewry whose strange alignment may shadow the elliptical form of the amphitheatre beneath.
However, these Anglian and southern routes acquired military importance from the 3rd century onwards with the emergence of Saxon seaborne raiding as a major and persistent threat to the security of Britannia.
* Saxon Shore, a military command of the Late Roman Empire, encompassing southern Britain and the coasts of northern France.
The Jutes were one of the early Anglo Saxon tribal groups who colonised this area of southern Hampshire.
Sebeș (; German: Mühlbach ; Hungarian: Szászsebes ; Transylvanian Saxon dialect: Melnbach ) is a city in Alba County, central Romania, southern Transylvania.
Although the Saxons made Chichester the capital of the South Saxon kingdom only the southern of the southern section of the road into the western Weald have remained in use, as the A285.