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Some biologists, anthropologists and evolutionary psychologists believe this in-group / out-group discrimination has evolved because it enhances group survival.
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Some and biologists
Some evolutionary biologists, such as Richard Lewontin and the late Stephen Jay Gould have employed dialectical materialism in their approach, playing a precautionary heuristic role in their work.
Some evolutionary biologists, on the other hand, view it as an undirected emergent property of the ecosystem: as each individual species pursues its own self-interest, their combined actions tend to have counterbalancing effects on environmental change.
Some biologists suggest that the modern giraffe descended from G. jumae ; others find G. gracilis a more likely candidate.
Some biologists say the same roles are performed by lytic vacuoles, while others suggest there is strong evidence that lysosomes are indeed in some plant cells.
Some evolutionary biologists, for example Allan Wilson, have proposed that evolution in promoter or regulatory regions may be more important than changes in coding sequences over such time frames.
Some evolutionary biologists have argued that while punctuated equilibrium was " of great interest to biology ", it merely modified neo-Darwinism in a manner that was fully compatible with what had been known before.
Some biologists have criticised the idea for describing the gene as the unit of selection, but suggest describing the gene as the unit of evolution, on the grounds that selection is a " here and now " event of reproduction and survival, while evolution is the long-term trend of shifting allele frequencies.
Some serious biologists and ecologists created the scientific ecology movement which would not confuse empirical data with visions of a desirable future world.
Some biologists and physicists working in Kauffman's area reserve judgment on Kauffman's claims about self-organization and evolution.
Some biologists argue that any close interaction between two organisms is unlikely to be completely neutral for either party, and that relationships identified as commensal are likely mutualistic or parasitic in a subtle way that has not been detected.
" Some biologists such as Richard Dawkins suggest that the individual selected is the gene, while computer simulations like Daisyworld suggest that biological selection occurs at multiple levels simultaneously.
Some biologists have also feared that this name would be offensive to some Native American tribes involved in the conservation effort.
Some biologists use Tenrecomorpha as the name for the tenrec-golden mole clade, but prevailing evidence suggests Afrosoricida is more appropriate and Tenrecomorpha is used here as the name of the tenrec suborder.
Some biologists have used she-male to refer to male non-human animals displaying female traits or behaviors, such as female pheromones being given off by male reptiles.
Some evolutionary biologists, such as Robert Trivers, have suggested that deception plays a significant part in human behavior, and in animal behavior, more generally speaking.
Some biologists argued that populations of most organisms, amphibians included, naturally vary through time.
Some original cat breeds that have a distinct phenotype that is the main type occurring naturally as the dominant domesticated cat type in their region of origin are sometimes considered as subspecies and in the past received names as such, although this is no longer supported by feline biologists.
Some biologists, such as Jack Cohen, believe this assumption too restrictive and unimaginative ; they see it as a form of circular reasoning ( see Alternative biochemistry, a speculative biochemistry of alien life forms ).
Some biologists dislike the term " preadaptation " because there is a common tendency to misunderstand it as implying teleology, an intentional plan.
Some chemical biologists use automated synthesis of many diverse compounds in order to experiment with effects of small molecules on biological processes.
Some biologists argue that it is not herbivorization alone that is threatening the flora, but a number of other ecological factors including zoochory and nutrient cycling.
Some biologists conduct laboratory experiments involving animals, plants or microorganisms but biological research also takes place outside the laboratory and may involve observation rather than experimentation.
Some and anthropologists
Some anthropologists, such as Lloyd Fallers and Clifford Geertz, focused on processes of modernization by which newly independent states could develop.
Some anthropologists have suggested that hominids and early humans living in the Paleolithic Era may have practiced cannibalism.
Some anthropologists, such as Tim White, suggest that cannibalism was common in human societies prior to the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period.
Some anthropologists started collecting recordings ( at first especially of Native American folklore ) on phonograph cylinders in the late 19th century.
Some anthropologists, such as Sir Edward Burnett Tylor and Sir James George Frazer, believed that the earliest intelligent modern humans practiced something that we would recognize today as prayer.
Some historians, social scientists and anthropologists have, however, argued that their disciplines already describe psychological motivation and that Psychohistory is not, therefore, a separate subject.
Some anthropologists have questioned the energy cost of rebuilding the endometrium every fertility cycle.
Some anthropologists believe that the Apache and the Navajo were pushed south and west into what is now New Mexico and Arizona by pressure from other Great Plains Indians, such as the Comanche and Kiowa.
Some anthropologists argue that nuclear family incest avoidance can be explained in terms of the ecological, demographic, and economic benefits of exogamy.
Some ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by ' ethnomusicologists ' proper, but instead by anthropologists examining music as an aspect of a culture.
Some historians and anthropologists note that many societies before the sexual revolution that place a high value on maintaining virginity for marriage actually have a large amount of premarital sexual activity that does not involve vaginal penetration.
Some stories from the Popol Vuh continued to be told by modern Maya as folk legends ; some stories recorded by anthropologists in the 20th century may preserve portions of the ancient tales in greater detail than the Ximénez manuscript.
Some writers and anthropologists argue that missionaries, in seeking to ‘ civilise and institutionalise ’ Aboriginal people, forced them to abandon their lifestyle, language, religion and ceremonies — indeed, the whole fabric of their lives.
Some had already anticipated the theory's emergence, with the social anthropologist Edmund Leach informing the assembled archaeologists at a 1971 discussion on the topic of " The Explanation of Culture Change " held at the University of Sheffield that cultural structuralism, which was then popular amongst social anthropologists, would soon make its way into the archaeological community.
Some leading anthropologists disagree, and consider anthropological holism to be an artifact from 19th century social evolutionary thought that inappropriately imposes scientific positivism upon cultural anthropology.
Some anthropologists have hypothesized that Paleo-Indians migrated along the coast of East Asia and Beringia in small watercraft, before or during the last Ice Age.
Some anthropologists have argued that the symbol, like others used in the Soviet Union, was actually a Russian Orthodox symbol that was used by the Communist Party to fill the religious needs that communism was replacing as a new state " religion ".
Some anthropologists make a semantic distinction between group and individual levels of acculturation.
Some anthropologists and historians have suggested the Mohawk of the Iroquois Confederacy destroyed and drove out the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, based on analysis of political and economic conditions at the time.
Some researchers argued that Wendigo psychosis was essentially a fabrication, the result of naïve anthropologists taking stories related to them at face value.
Some anthropologists in the latter half of the 20th century, used the term " Caucasoid " in their literature, such as Boyd, Gates, Coon, Cole, Brues and Krantz replacing the earlier term " Caucasian " as it had fallen out of usage.
Some anthropologists claim that the " collective trauma of the Long Walk ... is critical to contemporary Navajos ' sense of identity as a people ".