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The Allied fleet now sailed from Artemisium to Salamis to assist with the final evacuation of Athens ; en route Themistocles left inscriptions addressed to the Ionian Greek crews of the Persian fleet on all springs of water that they might stop at, asking them to defect to the Allied cause.
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Allied and fleet
The Allied fleet defeated the demoralized remnants of the Persian fleet in the Battle of Mycale — on the same day as Plataea, according to tradition.
The Allied fleet then sailed to the Thracian Chersonese, still held by the Persians, and besieged and captured the town of Sestos.
* 1943 – World War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily ( Operation Husky, July 10, 1943 ).
The Spartans claimed the command of land forces, and since the Greek ( hereafter referred to as " Allied ") fleet would be dominated by Athens, Themistocles tried to claim command of the naval forces.
Thus, in August 480 BC, when the Persian army was approaching Thessaly, the Allied fleet sailed to Artemisium, and the Allied army marched to Thermopylae.
From Artemisium, the Allied fleet sailed to the island of Salamis, where the Athenian ships helped with the final evacuation of Athens.
Xerxes's actions indicate that he was keen to finish the conquest of Greece in 480 BC, and to do this, he needed a decisive victory over the Allied fleet.
Since it was his long-standing advocacy of Athenian naval power which enabled the Allied fleet to fight at all, and it was his stratagem that brought about the Battle of Salamis, it is probably not an exaggeration to say, as Plutarch does, that Themistocles " is thought to have been the man most instrumental in achieving the salvation of Hellas ".
At the decisive Battle of Plataea, the Allies destroyed the Persian army, whilst apparently on the same day, the Allied navy destroyed the remnants of the Persian fleet at the Battle of Mycale.
To block the Persian advance, a small force of Greeks blocked the pass of Thermopylae, while an Athenian-dominated Allied navy engaged the Persian fleet in the nearby straits of Artemisium.
The simultaneous Battle of Artemisium was up to that point a stalemate ; however, when news of Thermopylae reached them, the Allied fleet also retreated, since holding the straits of Artemisium was now a moot point.
This strategy was flawed, however, unless the Allied fleet was able to prevent the Persian fleet from transporting troops across the Saronic Gulf.
This was exactly the kind of news that Xerxes wanted to hear ; that the Athenians might be willing to submit to him, and that he would be able to destroy the rest of the Allied fleet.
Herodotus reports that there were 378 triremes in the Allied fleet, and then breaks the numbers down by city state ( as indicated in the table ).
The concentration of the German fleet in Norway served three purposes ; namely as a threat to Anglo-American convoys carrying supplies around the North Cape to the Soviet Union, to deter an Allied invasion of Norway and as a fleet in being that tied down British warships at Scapa Flow that might otherwise be deployed in the Battle of the Atlantic.
Allied and now
" A second possible objective now occurred to the French – an Allied incursion into Alsace and an attack on the city of Strasbourg.
" Marlborough, spotting this error, now countermanded Cutts ’ intention to launch a third attack, and ordered him simply to contain the enemy within Blenheim ; no more than 5, 000 Allied soldiers were able to pen in twice the number of French infantry and dragoons.
If Holstein-Beck's Dutch column were destroyed, the Allied army would be split in two: Eugene's wing would be isolated from Marlborough's, passing the initiative to the Franco-Bavarian forces now engaged across the whole plain.
With Marshal Villars sitting strong on the Moselle, the Allied commander – whose supplies had by now become critical – was forced to call off his campaign on 16 June.
The Allied commander now summoned the cavalry on the right wing to reinforce his centre, leaving only the English squadrons in support of Orkney.
The Allied commander ordered his cavalry forward against the now heavily outnumbered French and Bavarian horsemen.
In Ramillies the Allied infantry, now reinforced by the English troops brought down from the north, at last broke through.
Venizelos now led a superficially united Greece into the war on the Allied side, but underneath the surface, the division of Greek society into Venizelists and anti-Venizelists, the so-called National Schism, became more entrenched.
The port city of Memel ( now Klaipėda ) and the surrounding area, with a predominantly German population, was under provisional Allied control according to Article 99 of the Treaty of Versailles.
The Allied victory at Salamis ended the immediate threat to Greece, and Xerxes now returned to Asia with part of the army, leaving his general Mardonius to attempt to complete the conquest.
Soon Genoa revolted from the oppressive rule of the victors, rose and drove out the Austrians ( 5 – 11 December ) as an Allied invasion of Provence stalled, and the French, now commanded by Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, Duc de Belle-Isle, took the offensive ( 1747 ).
After gaining valuable experience in amphibious assaults and inland fighting, Allied planners returned to the plans to invade Northern France, now postponed to 1944.
The Reserve Army ( Ersatzheer ) had an operational plan called Operation Walküre ( Valkyrie ), which was to be used in the event that the disruption caused by the Allied bombing of German cities caused a breakdown in law and order, or an uprising by the millions of slave labourers from occupied countries now being used in German factories.
* On 18 March, the King ( now formally the lieutenant ) issued the decrees together with a letter in which he anticipated his intention of abdicating in favor of his son Umberto II ( who was named lieutenant general ); the date for abdication being the anniversary of the Allied forces ’ entry into Rome.
* Association of Cinematograph Technicians, now the Association of Cinematograph Television and Allied Technicians
Among the academic disciplines now rated World-Leading are Allied Health Professions & Studies ; Art & Design ; English Language & Literature ; Geography & Environmental Studies ; History ; Music ; Psychology ; and Social Work & Social Policy & Administration.
Allied commanders were now able to feed some of the delayed detachments of the fourth column into this bitter struggle.
Napoleon now had the option to strike at one of the wings, and he chose the Allied left since other enemy sectors had already been cleared or were conducting fighting retreats.
General panic now seized the Allied army and it abandoned the field in any and all possible directions.
The third section, uniting the Town Common ( Uptown Greenville area ) with the East Carolina University Schools of Allied Health, Dentistry, Medicine and Nursing, plus the Vidant hospital complex is now in the paid for and planning stage.
Companies like Allied Signal and Alpha Portland Cement did build in town, but even so the boom days were now over.
" Kolbe's information is now recognized as the very best produced by any Allied agent in World War II.
Allied and sailed
Perhaps overconfident and expecting no resistance, the Persian navy sailed into the Straits, only to find that, far from disintegrating, the Allied navy was ready for battle.
Flying a French flag as a ruse of war, the SM U-73 sailed past British warships and torpedoed two Allied troopships and a British man-of-war.
Thus, in August 480 BC, after hearing of Xerxes's approach, a small Allied army led by the Spartan king Leonidas I blocked the Pass of Thermopylae, whilst an Athenian-dominated navy sailed to the Straits of Artemisium.
After the victory at Mycale, the Allied fleet sailed to the Hellespont to break down the pontoon bridges, but found that this was already done.
Moreover, the Germans had bases along the length of Norway, which meant, until escort carriers became available, Allied convoys had to be sailed through these areas without adequate defense against aircraft and submarine attack.
Shortly after Mycale, the Allied fleet sailed to the Hellespont to break down the pontoon bridges, but found that this had already been done.
The Allied fleet sailed north to Cape Artemisium once it became known that the Persian army was advancing along the coast past Mount Olympus, probably around late July or the beginning of August.
If the Persians sailed around the outer, eastern side of Euboea, they could head straight to Attica, and thereby cut off the Allied fleet's line of retreat.
Thus, in August 480 BC, after hearing of Xerxes ' approach, a small Allied army led by Spartan King Leonidas I blocked the Pass of Thermopylae, while an Athenian-dominated navy sailed to the Straits of Artemisium.
Allied convoys were not seriously disrupted ; most convoys sailed according to schedule, and there was no diminution of supplies to Britain.
Torrington sailed from the Nore already convinced the French would be stronger – much of the Royal Navy had been diverted to protect their maritime commerce from privateers, and the Allied fleet now only had 56 English and Dutch ships of the line, totalling 4, 153 guns, to Tourville's fleet of 4, 600 guns.
Hostilities did not end for the 17th King's on 11 November ; the battalion had sailed for Murmansk, Russia, in October as part of an Allied intervention force assembled to support the " White " forces in their civil war against the Bolsheviks.