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Antarctic and island
The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica and the ice shelves, waters, and island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence.
The first Antarctic land discovered was the island of South Georgia, visited by the English merchant Anthony de la Roché in 1675.
On July 19, 2007, the Iles Eparses entry and redirects for each island were dropped due to the group becoming a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in February.
The eastern part of the main island, and a few small islands in the Beagle Channel, belong to Argentina, being part of the Tierra del Fuego, Antarctic Territory and South Atlantic Islands Province ; its capital is Ushuaia, the biggest city of the archipelago.
In the Southern Hemisphere, all of Tierra del Fuego lies outside the polar region in Nordenskiöld's system, but part of the island ( including Ushuaia, Argentina ) is reckoned as being within the Antarctic under Köppen's.
* Seymour Island, an island off the tip of Graham Land on the Antarctic Peninsula
The island became subject to the Antarctic Treaty in 1961.
Being south of 60 ° S, the island is subject to the Antarctic Treaty.
Because Drygalski Island was thought to be " Drygalski's High Land ", charted by Professor Erich von Drygalski of the German Antarctic Expedition ( 1901-1903 ) in 1902, Drygalski's name was given by Sir Douglas Mawson to the island.
Deception Island is an island in South Shetland off the Antarctic Peninsula, which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica.
Around the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, the Antarctic fur seal ( Arctocephalus gazella ) is the main prey.
Based on the similarities in their flora, botanist Ronald Good identified a separate Antarctic Floristic Kingdom that included southern South America, New Zealand, and some southern island groups.
* Long Island ( Antarctica ), a small island off the Antarctic Peninsula
* Cuverville Island, Antarctic island
The Scotia Arc is the island arc system that links the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula to those of Tierra del Fuego.
The sediments that form the Fossil Bluff Group accumulated within a volcanic island arc, which now forms the bedrock backbone of the Antarctic Peninsula, in prehistoric floodplains and deltas and offshore as submarine fans and other marine sediments.
A rich record of fossil leaves, wood, pollen, and flowers demonstrates that flowering plants thrived in subtropical climates within the volcanic island arcs that occupied the Antarctic Peninsula region during the Cretaceous and very early Paleogene periods.
They indicate that the emergent parts of the volcanic island arc, the eroded roots of which now formed the central part of the Antarctic Peninsula, were covered by either warm temperate or subtropical forests.
Several Antarctic island groups are considered part of the Antarctica ecozone, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands, the South Shetland Islands, Bouvet Island, the Crozet Islands, Prince Edward Islands, Heard Island, the Kerguelen Islands, and the McDonald Islands.
The island was first claimed for Britain on 16 October 1819, formally annexed by Britain as part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies in 1908, and now as part of the separate British Antarctic Territory.
The new main base, Dumont D ' Urville station, was built on the same island and opened on January 12, 1956, to serve as center for French scientific research during the Antarctic International Geophysical Year 1957 / 1958.
* Hemphill Island a small, mainly ice-covered Antarctic island
It is claimed by the United Kingdom, for which it represents their largest remaining overseas island, part of the British Antarctic Territory, while for Chile and Argentina it is part of the Antártica Chilena Province and Tierra del Fuego Province respectively.

Antarctic and South
The Antarctic continent, located in the Earth's southern hemisphere, is centered asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely south of the Antarctic Circle.
Travelling in a specially designed six wheel drive vehicle, the team completed the journey from the Antarctic coast at Patriot Hills to the geographic South Pole in 69 hours.
To trace it starting arbitrarily at South America, it flows through the Drake Passage between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula and then is split by the Scotia Arc to the east, with a shallow warm branch flowing to the north in the Falkland Current and a deeper branch passing through the Arc more to the east before also turning to the north.
The timing of the opening of the Drake Passage, between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, is more disputed ; tectonic and sediment evidence show that it could have been open as early as pre 34 Ma, estimates of the opening of the Drake passage are between 20 and 40 Ma.
The Antarctic ( or ) is a polar region, specifically the region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
The islands situated between 60 ° S latitude parallel to the south and the Antarctic Convergence to the north, and their respective Exclusive Economic Zones fall under the national jurisdiction of the countries that possess them: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ( United Kingdom ; also an EU Overseas territory ), Bouvet Island ( Norway ), and Heard and McDonald Islands ( Australia ).
The first human born in the Antarctic was Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen born on 8 October 1913 in Grytviken, South Georgia.
However, the region is visited by more than 40, 000 tourists annually, the most popular destinations being the Antarctic Peninsula area ( especially the South Shetland Islands ) and South Georgia Island.
The Antarctic hosts the world largest protected area comprising 1. 07 million km < sup > 2 </ sup >, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Marine Protection Area created in 2012.
After the tectonic creation of Drake Passage, when South America fully detached from Antarctica during the Oligocene, the climate cooled significantly due to the advent of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which brought cool deep Antarctic water to the surface.
The islands are located from the Isla de los Estados in Argentina ( and from the Argentine mainland ); from Chile ; west of the Shag Rocks ( South Georgia ) and north of the British Antarctic Territory ( which overlaps with the Argentine and Chilean claims to Antarctica in that region ).
Many plants are characteristic of the Antarctic flora, and are related to plants found in southern South America, New Zealand and Australia.
Then, in 1985, British Antarctic Survey scientists Farman, Gardiner and Shanklin published results of abnormally low ozone concentrations above Halley Bay near the South Pole.
* 2007 –, a cruise liner carrying 154 people, sinks in the Antarctic Ocean south of Argentina after hitting an iceberg near the South Shetland Islands.
The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50 ° S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current.
He led the Antarctic expedition ( 1910-12 ) to discover the South Pole in December 1911 and he was the first expedition leader to ( undisputedly ) reach the North Pole in 1926.
Amundsen wrote about the expedition in The South Pole: an account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the " Fram ", 1910 – 12, published in 1912.
Translated as The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the " Fram ," 1910 – 1912, translated by A. G. Chater, 1912.

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