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Page "Duchy of Brittany" ¶ 53
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Breton and War
The cubist generation before World War 1,, and, on a lower level, the surrealists of the period between the wars, both assumed an accepted universe of discourse, in which, to quote Andre Breton, it was possible to make definite advances, exactly as in the sciences.
* 1512 – The naval Battle of Saint-Mathieu, during the War of the League of Cambrai, sees the simultaneous destruction of the Breton ship La Cordelière and the English ship The Regent.
During the Anglo-French War ( 1627 – 1629 ), under Charles I, by 1629 the Kirkes took Quebec City, Sir James Stewart of Killeith, Lord Ochiltree planted a colony on Cape Breton Island at Baleine, Nova Scotia and Alexander ’ s son, William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling established the first incarnation of “ New Scotland ” at Port Royal.
* the Sydney Coal Field in the southeastern part of the island along the Atlantic Ocean drove the Industrial Cape Breton economy throughout the 19th and 20th centuries — until after World War II its industries were the largest private employers in Canada
The War of 1812 had some effect on the shipping industry in the Maritime colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Breton Island ; however, the significant Royal Navy presence in Halifax and other ports in the region prevented any serious attempts by American raiders.
The Maritimes also have a black population who are mostly descendants of African American loyalists or refugees from the War of 1812, largely concentrated in Nova Scotia but also in various communities throughout southern New Brunswick, Cape Breton ( where the black population is largely of West Indian descent ), and Prince Edward Island.
Industrial Cape Breton has historically been a region of labour activism, electing Co-operative Commonwealth Federation ( and later NDP ) MPs, and even produced many early members of the Communist Party of Canada in the pre-World War II era.
During the German occupation of Belgium in World War II he remained in Brussels, which led to a break with Breton.
* 1364 – Battle of Auray: English forces defeat the French in Brittany ; end of the Breton War of Succession.
Breton and his comrades supported Leon Trotsky and his International Left Opposition for a while, though there was an openness to anarchism that manifested more fully after World War II.
By the end of World War II the surrealist group led by André Breton decided to explicitly embrace anarchism.
* September 29 – Battle of Auray: The Breton War of Succession ends with the victory of the House of Montfort over Charles of Blois.
* The Breton War of Succession begins over the control of the Duchy of Brittany.
* Joanna of Flanders, military leader in the Breton War of Succession ( approximate date ; d. 1374 )
During the Breton War of Succession, in 1356 and 1357, the city was laid siege to by Henry of Grosmont, the Duke of Lancaster, cousin of the English king, but Bertrand du Guesclin slipped into the city and took over the resistance, which would ultimately be victorious.
The following years saw more direct involvement by English armies, including in the Breton War of Succession, but these interventions also proved fruitless at first.
During Queen Anne's War ( 1702 to 1713 ), the British Conquest of Acadia occurred in 1710, resulting in Nova Scotia, other than Cape Breton, being officially ceded to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht including Rupert's Land, that had been conquered by France in the late 17th century ( Battle of Hudson's Bay ).
During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes, where he met the devotee of Alfred Jarry, Jacques Vaché, whose anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition influenced Breton considerably.
Breton was again in the medical corps of the French Army at the start of World War II.
By the end of World War II André Breton decided to embrace anarchism explicitly.
Amherst gained fame during the Seven Years ' War, particularly in the North American campaign known in the United States as the French and Indian War when he led the British attack on Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island in June 1758.
Acquired in the early 16th century by Jean Le Breton, France's Controller-General for War under King Francis I, a new château was constructed around the original 14th-century keep where King Philip II of France once met Richard I of England to discuss peace.
Nicknamed " the Black Dog of Brocéliande ", du Guesclin fought the English during the Breton War of Succession and was an expert in the guerrilla warfare.
In 1341, the War of the Breton Succession allowed the English to place permanent garrisons in Brittany.

Breton and Succession
The constitutional ambiguity of Dukes of Brittany as vassals of both Valois France ( in right of Brittany ) and Plantagenet England ( in right of Richmond ) was the source of much tension in Breton and Northern English history, particularly during the great Breton War of Succession and Wars of the Roses.
This followed the Breton War of Succession, when English forces had supported John V, Duke of Brittany, against his rival for the Dukedom Charles of Blois, who was supported by France.
In 1235 the stage is set for the next century's Breton War of Succession when the Duke of Brittany Pierre Mauclerc disposed of the heir of the Penthièvre Dynasty in order to give the countship of Penthièvre to his second child, his daughter Yolande of Brittany.
Early 14th century representation of the War of Breton Succession
The Breton War of Succession ensues, and because it involves the King of France, the stage is set for the Duchy's eventual loss of independence, although this would take an additional hundred years.
One of the effects of the Breton War of Succession was to intensify the rivalries between England and France with Brittany as the contested prize.
After the Breton War of Succession, Brittany still had links with the English Crown through the Earldom of Richmond, until the Wars of the Roses.
The intrigues and contests between the House of Montfort and the House of Penthièvre continued well after the Breton War of Succession.
This battle was the decisive confrontation of the Breton War of Succession, a part of the Hundred Years ' War.
In 1342 – 43 he fought with Robert of Artois in the Breton War of Succession, and in 1343 helped negotiate the Truce of Malestroit.
He took part in the War of the Breton Succession as a partisan of Charles of Blois serving as advisor to John, Duke of Normandy during the latter ’ s campaign in Brittany autumn 1341.
After his death John de Montfort claimed his rights as Duke, but French monarchy supported the Blois faction, triggering the Breton War of Succession ( 13411364 ), which opposed the House of Blois to the House of Montfort.
She was one of the protagonists of the Breton War of Succession.
When John died in 1345 in the midst of the Breton War of Succession, his wife Joanna of Flanders took arms to protect the rights of her son John V, Duke of Brittany against the party led by Charles and Joan.
The Breton War of Succession was a conflict between the Houses of Blois and Montfort for control of the Duchy of Brittany.

Breton and was
In 1949, Camus founded the Group for International Liaisons within the Revolutionary Union Movement after his split with Garry Davis ' movement Citizens of the World, which the surrealist André Breton was also a member.
Alfred Jarry ( 8 September 1873 – 1 November 1907 ) was a French writer born in Laval, Mayenne, France, not far from the border of Brittany ; he was of Breton descent on his mother's side.
The first Breton dictionary, the Catholicon, was also the first French dictionary.
Edited by Jehan Lagadec in 1464, it was a trilingual work containing Breton, French and Latin.
Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg, the Breton language agency, was set up in 1999 by the Brittany region to promote and develop the use of Breton
Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg, the Breton language agency, was set up in 1999 by the Brittany region to promote and develop the use of Breton.
In reality Walter fitz Alan was the son of a Breton knight.
Breton artist Alan Stivell was one of the earliest musicians to use the word Celtic and Keltia in his marketing materials, starting in the early 1960's as part of the worldwide folk music revival of that era with the term quickly catching on with other artists worldwide.
One of his major works was to bring " Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau " ( the Welsh national anthem ) back in Brittany and create lyrics in Breton.
The first permanently settled Scottish community on Cape Breton Island was Judique, settled in 1775 by Michael Mor MacDonald.
An order forbidding the granting of land in Cape Breton, issued in 1763, was removed in 1784.
The British government had intended that the Crown take over the operation of the mines when Cape Breton was made a colony, but this was never done, probably because of the rehabilitation cost of the mines.
In 1820, the colony of Cape Breton Island was merged for the second time with Nova Scotia.
Cape Breton Island is joined to the mainland by the Canso Causeway, which was completed in 1955, enabling direct road and rail traffic to and from the island, but requiring marine traffic to pass through the Canso Canal at the eastern end of the causeway.
According to the Census of Canada, the population of Cape Breton Island in 2011 was 135, 974, a 4. 4 % decline from 142, 298 in 2006, and a 14. 1 % decline from 158, 260 in 1996.
Cape Breton is well known for its traditional fiddle music, which was brought to North America by Scottish immigrants during the Highland Clearances.
Île-Royale was renamed Cape Breton Island and incorporated into the Colony of Nova Scotia.
At the same time, another part of the Colony of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, was split off to become the Colony of Cape Breton Island.
In 1820, the Colony of Cape Breton Island was merged back into the Colony of Nova Scotia for the second time by the British government.

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