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The Jesuits in Japan had to maintain economic self-sufficiency because they could not expect stable and sufficient payment from their patron, the King of Portugal, the king allowing the Jesuits to engage in trade with Japan.
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Jesuits and Japan
Francis Xavier reached Japan on 27 July 1549, with Anjiro and three other Jesuits, but he was not permitted to enter any port his ship arrived at until 15 August, when he went ashore at Kagoshima, the principal port of the province of Satsuma on the island of Kyūshū.
Two great cities, Osaka and Sakaii, have been burned to the ground, each one almost as big as London, and not one house left standing, and it is reported above 300, 000 men have lost their lives, “ yet the old Emperor Ogusho Same hath prevailed and Fidaia Same either been slain or fled secretly away, that no news is to be heard of him .” Jesuits, priests, and friars are banished by the emperor and their churches and monasteries pulled down ; they put the fault on the arrival of the English ; it is said if Fidaia Same had prevailed against the emperor, he promised them entrance again, when without doubt all the English would have been driven out of Japan.
* 1593-The Franciscans arrive in Japan and establish St. Anna's hospital in Kyoto ; they dispute with the Jesuits.
Portugal, with its vast sea power, and the Catholic Church, principally through the Spanish Order of the Jesuits, have gained a foothold in Japan and seek to extend their power.
Alessandro Valignano, Visitor of the Society of Jesus in Asia, was one of the first Jesuits to argue, in the case of Japan, for an adaptation of Christian customs to the societies of Asia, through his Résolutions and Cérémonial.
Christianity had an impact on Japan, largely through the efforts of the Jesuits, led first by the Navarrese Saint Francis Xavier ( 1506 – 1552 ), who arrived in Kagoshima in southern Kyūshū in 1549.
Among those collections kept away from public view are the numerous blood-soaked garments from Jesuits martyred in Japan, the skull of Cardinal Morton, the ropes used to quarter St Edmund Campion SJ, the hairs of St Francis Xavier SJ, an enormous solid silver jewel-encrusted monstrance, the Wintour vestments, a cope made for Henry VII, and a thorn said to be from the crown of thorns placed upon Jesus ' head at the crucifixion.
Such a luxurious life and authoritarian attitudes among Jesuits in Japan were criticized not only by rival mendicant orders but also by some Jesuits.
Portuguese ships began arriving in Japan in 1543, with Catholic missionary activities in Japan beginning in earnest around 1549, mainly by Portuguese-sponsored Jesuits until Spanish-sponsored mendicant orders, such as the Franciscans and Dominicans, gained access to Japan.
Of the 95 Jesuits who worked in Japan up to 1600, 57 were Portuguese, 20 were Spaniards and 18 Italian.
Portuguese-sponsored Jesuits under Alessandro Valignano took the lead in proselytizing in Japan over the objection of the Spaniards.
The Jesuits approached daimyo in southwestern Japan and succeeded in converting some of these daimyo.
Actually, Catholic power in his domain was trivial because he did not conquer western Japan, where the Jesuits were based.
In contrast to the Jesuits, the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Augustinians were openly preaching to the common peoples ; this caused Hideyoshi to become concerned that commoners with divided loyalties might lead to dangerous rebels like the Ikkō-ikki sect of earlier years ; this led to Hideyoshi putting the 26 Martyrs of Japan followers to death in 1597 on his order.
Jesuits and had
Argiento had been trained so rigorously by the Jesuits that Michelangelo was unable to change his habits: up before dawn to scrub the floors, whether they were dirty or not ; ;
Later in his life he had a religious crisis, influenced by Counter-Reformation piety, which resulted in condemning his own works depicting nudity, and he left all his possessions to the Jesuits.
When the last period began, all hope of conciliating the Protestants was gone and the Jesuits had become a strong force.
In particular, the ideas of Confucius, translated into European languages by the Jesuits stationed in China, are thought to have had considerable influence on the deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Christianity.
In one documented instance involving favourable reviews written by the Jesuits of San Fedele, defending La Dolce Vita had severe consequences.
Thrown by the religious tolerance of Akbar and Jahangir's rule, the Jesuits had long thought that they were always on the verge of conversion.
Jesuits had brought with them various books, engravings, and paintings and, when they saw the delight Akbar held for them, sent for more and more of the same to be given to the Mughals, as they felt they were on the " verge of conversion ," a notion which proved to be very false.
In one of history's greatest experiments in communal living, the Jesuits had soon organized about 100, 000 Guaraní in about 20 reducciones ( reductions or townships ), and they dreamed of a Jesuit empire that would stretch from the Paraguay-Paraná confluence to the coast and back to the Paraná headwaters.
The Spanish authorities chose not to defend the settlements, and the Jesuits and their thousands of neophytes thus had little means to protect themselves.
Tensions between royal authorities and settlers came to a head in 1720 over the status of the Jesuits, whose efforts to organize the Indians had denied the settlers easy access to Indian labor.
However a Jesuits ' college, founded in the city in 1571 during the Counter-Reformation, had the right to award degrees from 1611 until 1773, when it was combined with the Academy.
When the Venetians called for help in Crete against the Ottoman Turks, the Pope extracted in return a promise that the Jesuits should be permitted back in Venetian territory, from which they had been expelled in 1606.
In these bulls he ruled on the custom of accommodating Christian words and usages to express non-Christian ideas and practices of the native cultures, which had been extensively done by the Jesuits in their Indian and Chinese missions.
Notwithstanding the meekness and affability of his upright and moderate character, modest to a fault ( he had the classical sculptures in the Vatican provided with mass-produced fig leaves ) and generous with his extensive private fortune, Clement XIII's pontificate was disturbed by perpetual contentions respecting the pressures to suppress the Jesuits coming from the progressive Enlightenment circles of the philosophes in France.
Clement XIII warmly espoused the order in a papal bull Apostolicum pascendi, 7 January 1765, which dismissed criticisms of the Jesuits as calumnies and praised the order's usefulness ; it was largely ignored: by 1768 the Jesuits had been expelled from France, the Two Sicilies and Parma.
Ganganelli was elected Pope Clement XIV on 19 May 1769 and was installed on 4 June 1769, after a conclave that had been sitting since 15 February 1769, heavily influenced by the political manoeuvres of the ambassadors of Catholic sovereigns who were opposed to the Jesuits.
During the previous pontificate the Jesuits had been expelled from Portugal and from all the Bourbon courts: France, Spain, Naples, and Parma ; now the general suppression of the order was urged by the faction called the " court cardinals ", who were opposed by the diminished pro-Jesuit faction, the Zelanti (" zealous "), who were generally opposed to the encroaching secularism of the Enlightenment.
The Jesuits had been expelled from Brasil ( 1754 ), Portugal ( 1759 ), France ( 1764 ), Spain and its colonies ( 1767 ) and Parma ( 1768 ).
In 1580 he was persuaded by English Jesuits to moderate or suspend the Bull Regnans in Excelsis ( 1570 ) which had excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I of England.
The inquisitor told him that the inquisition were not accustomed to stopping visitors or travellers unless someone had suggested they do so ( Bargrave suspected that Jesuits in Rome had made accusations against him ).