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Mongols and who
The Jurchen-founded Jin Dynasty was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war in which firearms played an important role.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the Chinese.
Khan claims that it was invading Mongols who introduced gunpowder to the Islamic world and cites Mamluk antagonism towards early musketeers in their infantry as an example of how gunpowder weapons were not always met with open acceptance in the Middle East.
The Khwarazmians were nomadic Turks from central Asia, who had recently been displaced by the Mongols further to the east and were now residing in Mesopotamia.
He also made truces with the Ayyubids in Syria, and sent embassies to negotiate with the Mongols, who were beginning to threaten the Muslim world.
As the kingdom was by now a relatively unimportant state, the Mongols paid little attention to it, but there were a few skirmishes in 1260: the forces of Julian of Sidon killed the nephew of Kitbuqa, who responded by sacking Sidon, and John II of Beirut was also captured by the Mongols during another raid.
Gediminas extended the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the east by challenging the Mongols who, at that time, controlled large areas of Rus '.
Explosive land mines were being used in 1277 AD by the Song Dynasty Chinese against an assault of the Mongols, who were besieging a city in southern China.
A definition includes the Mongols proper, who can be approximately divided into the eastern Mongols ( the Khalkha Mongols, the Inner Mongolians, the Buryats ), and the Oirats.
Some of the Mongols today who exhibit some slight Caucasoid features most likely stem from historical intermixing with ancient Central Asian and Siberian Europoids, as opposed to recent intermixing with Slavics and other Europeans.
By 1241, having conquered large parts of Russia, the Mongols continued the invasion of Europe with a massive three-pronged advance, following the fleeing Cumans, who had established an uncertain alliance with King Bela IV of Hungary.
He was again interviewed by Hei no Saemon, who now was interested in Nichiren's prediction of an invasion by the Mongols.
They met with Innocent IV in 1248, who again appealed to the Mongols to stop their killing of Christians.
In the Middle Ages, the Mongol Empire's campaign against China ( then comprising the Western Xia Dynasty, Jin Dynasty, and Southern Song Dynasty ) by Genghis Khan until Kublai Khan, who eventually established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, with their armies was extremely effective, allowing the Mongols to sweep through large areas.
These include the Loplik people and the Dolan people, who are thought to be closer to the Oirat Mongols and the Kyrgyz.
The decade was perhaps most dominated by the Mongols, who under the leadership of Möngke Khan continued their rapid expansion throughout Asia both to the east and west of their home territories.
* The Emperor of Jin China surrenders to the Mongols under Genghis Khan, who have besieged Beijing for a year.
Russian Orientalist art was largely concerned with the areas of Central Asia that Russia was conquering during the century, and also in historical painting with the Mongols who had dominated Russia for much of the Middle Ages, who were rarely shown in a good light.
* Jin China is overrun by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, who plunder the countryside and cities, until only Beijing remains free, despite two bloody palace coups and a lengthy siege.
By 1450, the Tatar language had become fashionable in the court of the Grand Prince of Moscow, Vasily II, who was accused of excessive love of the Tatars and their speech, and many Russian noblemen adopted Tatar surnames ( for example, a member of the Veliamanov family adopted the Turkic name " Aksak " and his descendents were the Aksakovs ) Many Russian boyar ( noble ) families traced their descent from the Mongols or Tatars, including Veliaminov-Zernov, Godunov, Arseniev, Bakhmetev, Bulgakov ( descendents of Bulgak ) and Chaadaev ( descendents of Genghis Khan's son Jagatay ).

Mongols and controlled
Later, it was controlled by the successor Ghurids until the Mongols invaded the area.
While the Mongols often raided other areas of Rus, they tended to respect the lands controlled by their principal collaborator.
From the 6th to the 13th century it grew larger and more populous than modern Samarkand and was controlled by the Western Turks, Arabs ( who converted the area to Islam ), Persian Samanids, Kara-Khanid Turks, Seljuk Turks, Kara-Khitan, and Khorezmshah before the Mongols arrived in 1220.
Over the next centuries they would incorporate groups such as the Tibetans, the Mongols, and the Uyghurs into territories which they controlled.
Thereafter, the Mongols directly controlled Tamna until 1294.
The Chahar Mongols did not belong to a league but were directly controlled by the Emperor.
The Battle of Zhongdu ( present-day Beijing ) was a battle in 1215 between the Mongols and the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, which controlled northern China.
By February 5 the Mongols controlled a stretch of the wall.
Altan Khan, who controlled the Ordos tumen of the Huang He or Yellow River was well placed to keep pressure on the Chinese and the Oirat Mongols in Tibet while developing both agriculture and trade.
Many lands were already under the Grand Duke's rule, but the rest were controlled by the Mongols.
With the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in China ( 1279-1368 ), Tannu Uriankhai was controlled by the Oirots ( western Mongols, also known as Zungars until the end of the 16th and early 17th centuries.
From 840 to 916 the Kimak Kaganate dominated the heartland of Asia, controlled a key central portion of the Silk Road, and influenced events from China to Persia and Europe, on a par with the Scythians and Mongols.
The Mongols controlled their territories through military force and taxation.
The historic region of Tannu Uriankhai, of which Tuva is a part, was controlled by the Mongols from 1207 to 1757, when it was brought under Manchu rule ( Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China ) until 1911.

Mongols and China
The Ming Chinese also mounted over 3, 000 cast bronze and iron cannon on the Great Wall of China, to defend against the Mongols.
The legacy of Genghis Khan has been contested between China, Mongolia, and Russia, all three states having significant numbers of ethnic Mongols within their borders, and holding territory that was conquered by Khan.
Gunpowder was invented, documented, and used in China where the Chinese military forces used gunpowder-based weapons technology ( i. e. rockets, guns, cannon ) and explosives ( i. e. grenades and different types of bombs ) against the Mongols when the Mongols attempted to invade and breach the Chinese city fortifications on the northern borders of China.
After the Mongols conquered China and founded the Yuan Dynasty, they used the Chinese gunpowder-based weapons technology in their invasion of Japan ; they also used gunpowder to fuel rockets.
The spread of gunpowder across Asia from China is widely attributed to the Mongols.
Led by Ghengis Khan, the Mongols were a group of steppe nomads that established a decentralized empire that, at its height, extended from China in the east to Black and Baltic seas in Europe.
The Chinese Muslim general Ma Bufang of Qinghai presented himself as a Chinese nationalist to the people of China, fighting against British imperialism, to deflect criticism by opponents that his government was feudal and oppressed minorities like Tibetans and Buddhist Mongols.
Mongols ( Mongolian: ), Mongolchuud ) are a Central-North Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in China.
In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia ( a smaller number of Mongols can also be found in Xinjiang in northwest China ).
After the fall of Liao Dynasty in 1125, the Mongols became a leading tribe on the steppe and also had power in Northern China.
Mongols simultaneously became Padishahs of Persia, Emperors of China, Great Khans of Mongolia and one Mongol even became Sultan of Egypt ( Al-Adil Kitbugha ).
By 1279, the Mongols conquered the Song Dynasty and brought all of China under control of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.
This map shows the boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia, Central Asia n States and People's Republic of China | China.
The 2000 census of People's Republic of China counted 5. 8 million Mongols, according to the narrow definition above.
It should be noted that 1992 census of China counted only 3. 6 million Mongols.

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