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Northern and Crusades
The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and Russia delayed indigenous literacy in Estonia.
* 1370 – Northern Crusades: Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights meet in the Battle of Rudau.
The last three books ( 14-16 ), describe Danish conquests on the south shore of the Baltic Sea and wars against Slavic peoples ( the Northern Crusades ), are very valuable for the history of West Slavic tribes ( Polabian Slavs, Pomeranians ) and Slavic paganism.
* 1219 – Northern Crusades: Danish victory at the Battle of Lyndanisse ( modern-day Tallinn ) establishes the Danish Duchy of Estonia.
In the early medieval period, the region's peoples resisted Christianisation and became subject to attack in the Northern Crusades.
In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the region, subjugated its local lords, and Christianized its people, in a precursor to the Northern Crusades.
During the Northern Crusades of the early 13th century, the Old Prussians used this thick forest as a line of defense.
Swedish and German Catholic campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades.
The official starting point for the Northern Crusades was Pope Celestine III's call in 1193 ; but the Christian kingdoms of Scandinavia and the Holy Roman Empire had begun moving to subjugate their pagan neighbors even earlier.
The Northern Crusades provided a rationale for the growth and expansion of the Teutonic Order of German crusading knights which had been founded in Palestine at the end of the 12th century.
The Teutonic Order's attempts to conquer Orthodox Russia ( particularly the Republics of Pskov and Novgorod ), an enterprise endorsed by Pope Gregory IX, can also be considered as a part of the Northern Crusades.
Gregory IX endorsed the Northern Crusades and attempts to conquer Orthodox Russia ( particularly the Pskov Republic and the Novgorod Republic ).
Category: People of the Northern Crusades
Examples include the 13th century Albigensian Crusade and the Northern Crusades.
As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population.
In 1168 during the Northern Crusades, Denmark mounted a crusade led by Bishop Absalon and King Valdemar the Great against the Wends of Rugia in order to convert them to Christianity.
In the 13th century the area became a battleground in the Northern Crusades.
Category: People of the Northern Crusades
Since the Northern Crusades Estonia became a battleground for centuries where Denmark, Germany, Russia, Sweden and Poland fought their many wars over controlling the important geographical position of the country as a gateway between East and West.
* Northern Crusades
Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa.

Northern and Baltic
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53 ° N to 66 ° N latitude and from 20 ° E to 26 ° E longitude.
Baltic languages are spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
It culminated in the so-called brick Gothic, a reduced style of Gothic architecture that flourished in Northern Europe, especially in the regions around the Baltic Sea which are without natural rock resources.
There are few direct testimonies to the language of the Cimbri: Referring to the Northern Ocean ( the Baltic or the North Sea ), Pliny the Elder states: " Philemon says that it is called Morimarusa, i. e. the Dead Sea, by the Cimbri, until the promontory of Rubea, and after that Cronium.
The River Daugava ( in Latvian ) or Western Dvina (;,, Дзвiна, Dzvina ; ), not to be confused with Northern Dvina, is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia, draining into the Gulf of Riga in Latvia, an arm of the Baltic Sea.
This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe.
The need for an alternative non-Russian source of naval stores is indicated by the information from the British Ambassador in Copenhagen, Hugh Elliott, who wrote to Foreign Secretary, Lord Carmarthen on 12 August 1788: “ There is no Topick so common in the Mouths of the Russian Ministers, as to insist on the Facility with which the Empress, when Mistress of the Baltic, either by Conquest, Influence, or Alliance with the other two Northern Powers, could keep England in a State of Dependence for its Baltic Commerce and Naval Stores ”.
Paganism in Eastern Europe and parts of Northern Europe is dominated by Baltic and Slavic movements, rising to visibility after the fall of the Soviet Union ( except for Latvian Dievturība which has been active since 1925 ).
The garrisons in Petrograd, Moscow, and other cities, the Northern and Western fronts, and the sailors of the Baltic Fleet in September openly declared through their elected representative body Tsentrobalt that they did not recognize the authority of the Provisional Government and would not carry out any of its commands.
On April 2, 1936, the Reich Air Ministry paid 750, 000 reichsmarks to the town of Wolgast for the whole Northern peninsula of the Baltic island of Usedom.
The Hanseatic League was an alliance of trading cities that maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, between the 13th and 17th centuries.
Soon after Sweden opened the Second Northern War in the Baltic by attacking the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Dutch moved to take advantage and an armed squadron of ships under the direction of Director-General Peter Stuyvesant seized New Sweden.
In the Second Northern War, she was able to establish control of the eastern bank of the Sound, formalized in the Treaty of Roskilde ( 1658 ), and gain recognition of her southeastern dominions by the European great powers in the Treaty of Oliva ( 1660 ); yet, Sweden was barred from further expansion at the southern coast of the Baltic.
Fossils have been found in Baltic amber, indicating that they were formerly more widespread in the Northern Hemisphere when conditions were more suitable.
* Something of, from, or related to Latvia, a country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region
In Northern Germany, Netherlands, northern Poland, Scandinavia, and the Baltic countries local building stone was unavailable but there was a strong tradition of building in brick.
Between 1710 and 1795, following Russia's success in the Great Northern War and the Partitions of Poland, the areas inhabited by Baltic Germans became Baltic governorates of Imperial Russia.

Northern and were
In many Northern towns and cities meetings were held and church bells were tolled.
The nineteenth-century immigration, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic, was not so much concerned, for very few if any among them held slaves: they were mostly in the Northern states where slavery had disappeared or was on the way out, or were too poverty-stricken to own slaves.
In spite of this, he went to Italy in 1132 in the train of the king, and his services there were rewarded in 1134 by the investiture of the Northern March, which was again without a ruler.
The Ainu were distributed in the northern and central islands of Japan, from Sakhalin island in the north to the Kuril islands and the island of Hokkaidō and Northern Honshū, although some investigators place their former range as throughout Honshū and as far north as the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula in what is now Cape Lopatka.
Diamond Jubilee Schools for girls were established throughout the remote Northern Areas of what is now Pakistan.
The office of Admiral of England ( or Lord Admiral and later Lord High Admiral ) was created around 1400, though there were before this Admirals of the Northern and Western Seas.
Taken together, in 2006 out of a total population of 2, 589, 600 ( 1, 850, 500 in the Autonomous Community, 230, 200 in the Northern Provinces and 508, 900 in Navarre ), there were 665, 800 who spoke Basque ( aged 16 and above ).
The events described in the poem take place in the late 5th century, after the Anglo-Saxons had begun their migration to England, and before the beginning of the 7th century, a time when the Anglo-Saxon people were either newly arrived or still in close contact with their Germanic kinsmen in Scandinavia and Northern Germany.
Instead, from 1 January 1923, almost all the remaining companies were grouped into the " big four ", the Great Western Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway, the London, Midland and Scottish Railway and the Southern Railway companies ( there were also a number of other joint railways such as the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and the Cheshire Lines Committee as well as special joint railways such as the Forth Bridge Railway, Ryde Pier Railway and at one time the East London Railway ).
In northern Europe, new technological innovations such as the heavy plough and the three-field system were not as effective in clearing new fields for harvest as they had been in the Mediterranean because the north had poor clay soil, and the potato, otherwise ideal for Northern Europe, was an American crop unknown in Europe at the time.
In the 12th century, bricks from Northern-Western Italy were re-introduced to Northern Germany, where an independent tradition evolved.
For the next five years he and the Northern Alliance were busy fighting the Taliban until the 2001 US-led Operation Enduring Freedom in which the Taliban government was toppled.
Graphics and titles were developed by the Lambie-Nairn design agency and were gradually rolled out across the whole of BBC News, including a similar design for regional news starting with Newsroom South East and the three BBC Nations – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
It was crossed as well with the Russian Laika specifically and singularly to add resistance against Northern cold and a longer and thicker coat than the Southern sighthounds were equipped with.
Bloody Sunday ()— sometimes called the Bogside Massacre — was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, in which 26 unarmed civil-rights protesters and bystanders were shot by soldiers of the British Army.
The incident occurred during a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march ; the soldiers involved were members of the First Battalion of the Parachute Regiment ( 1 Para ).
Bloody Sunday remains among the most significant events in the Troubles of Northern Ireland, chiefly because those who died were shot by the British army rather than paramilitaries, in full view of the public and the press.
Soldiers claimed the pair were armed, which was denied by local people, and moderate nationalists including John Hume and Gerry Fitt walked out of the Parliament of Northern Ireland in protest.
He said of the Siege of Leningrad ( 1941 – 1944 ): " Those who consumed human flesh, or dealt with the human liver trading from dissecting rooms ... were accounted as the political criminals ..." And of the building of Northern Railway Prisoners Camp (" SevZhelDorLag ") Solzhenitsyn reports, " An ordinary hard working political prisoner almost could not survive at that penal camp.
As Moism lost support by the time of the Han, the main philosophical contenders were Legalism, which Confucian thought somewhat absorbed, the teachings of Lao-tzu, whose focus on more mystic ideas kept it from direct conflict with Confucianism, and the new Buddhist religion, which gained acceptance during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era.
The Cimbri were a tribe from Northern Europe, who, together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC.

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