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Page "History of Sierra Leone" ¶ 103
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Protectorate and passed
After the Restoration, the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion was passed in August 1660, granting pardon to those who supported the Commonwealth and Protectorate, but it specifically exempted those who had played a direct role in the trial and execution of King Charles I eleven years previously.

Protectorate and Colony
The northern territory remained under direct administration as the Bechuanaland Protectorate and is today's Botswana, while the southern territory became part of the Cape Colony and is now part of the northwest province of South Africa ; the majority of Setswana-speaking people today live in South Africa.
The British Empire established the East Africa Protectorate in 1895, from 1920 known as the Kenya Colony.
In 1914, the area was formally united as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.
On 31 August 1896 a Proclamation was issued in the Colony declaring that territory to be a British " Protectorate ".
The Colony remained a distinct political entity ; the Protectorate was governed from it.
In 1924, Sierra Leone was divided into a Colony and a Protectorate, with separate and different political systems constitutionally defined for each.
Antagonism between the two entities escalated to a heated debate in 1947, when proposals were introduced to provide for a single political system for both the Colony and the Protectorate.
The Cape Colony became by far the largest component of the new union, as it contained regions it had previously annexed, such as British Bechuanaland ( not to be confused with the Bechuanaland Protectorate, now Botswana ), Griqualand East ( the area around Kokstad ) and Griqualand West ( area around Kimberley ).
The Transvaal Colony lay between Vaal River in the south, and the Limpopo River in the north, roughly between 22½ and 27½ S, and 25 and 32 E. To its south it bordered with the Orange Free State and Natal Colony, to its south-west were the Cape Colony, to the west the Bechuanaland Protectorate ( later Botswana ), to its north Rhodesia, and to its east Portuguese East Africa and Swaziland.
The Mau Mau, a largely ethnic Kikuyu rebel group in Kenya fighting to overthrow the state government of the British Colony and Protectorate of Kenya from 1952 – 1960, hid for many years in the forests, during which time their hair grew into long locks.
The capture of Benin paved the way for British military occupation and the merging of later regional British conquests into the Niger Coast Protectorate, the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria and finally, into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.
In 1967, the former British Colony of Aden and the former Aden Protectorate including Hadramaut became an independent Communist state, the People's Republic of South Yemen, later the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.
Another result of the railroad construction was the 1902 decision to transfer the eastern section of the Uganda Protectorate to the Kenya Colony, then called the East Africa Protectorate, to keep the entire railroad line under one local colonial administration.
From 16 July 1884 this merged into the British protectorate over Brass, Bonny, Opobo, Aboh and Old Calabar ( excluding Lagos Colony ), which was confirmed on 5 June 1885 ), and named Oil Rivers Protectorate, where in August 1891 effective consular administration was established, headed by a consul general ( 5 June 1885 the aforementoned former consul Edward Hyde Hewett became the first ).
This area would in different steps merge further via the 12 May 1893 Niger Coast Protectorate, 1 January 1900 renamed Protectorate of Southern Nigeria ( into which on 16 February 1906 Lagos was incorporated ), on 28 February 1906 made into the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, since 1 January 1914 part of British Nigeria Colony and Protectorate.

Protectorate and 1896
It soon became the capital of the British East Africa Protectorate and the sea terminal of the Uganda Railway, which was started in 1896.
* Sierra Leone Protectorate * ( 1896 – 1961 )
* Present Djibouti was originally, since 24 June 1884, the Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura ( Territoires Français d ' Obock, Tadjoura, Dankils et Somalis ), a French protectorate recognized by Britain on 9 February 1888, renamed on 20 May 1896 as French Somaliland ( Côte Française des Somalis ).
1, 750 ) was the capital of the Solomon Islands Protectorate from 1896 to 1942, and is today the capital of the Central Province.
Even so between September 1895 and mid 1896 three attempts were made by the Protectorate to enforce the Gallwey ‘ Treaty ’.
In November Phillips made a formal request to his superiors in England for permission to invade Benin City, and, in late December 1896, without waiting for a reply or approval from London, Phillips embarked on a military expedition with two Niger Coast Protectorate Force officers, a medical officer, two trading agents, 250 African soldiers masquerading in part as porters, and in part as a drum and pipe band.

Protectorate and 1897
Between August 1897 and May 1898 he travelled through Cape Colony, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Rhodesia and Basutoland.
Kurt Daluege ( September 15, 1897 – October 24, 1946 ) was a German Nazi SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer and Generaloberst der Polizei as chief of the Ordnungspolizei ( Order / uniformed Police ) and ruled the Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia as Deputy Protector after Reinhard Heydrich's assassination.
In an essay, which first appeared in The Times on 8 January 1897, she suggested the name " Nigeria " for the British Protectorate on the Niger River.
She then put forward this argument in The Times of 8 January 1897 thus: " The name Nigeria applying to no other part of Africa may without offence to any neighbours be accepted as co-extensive with the territories over which the Royal Niger Company has extended British influence, and may serve to differentiate them equally from the colonies of Lagos and the Niger Protectorate on the coast and from the French territories of the Upper Niger.
From October 1897, overprinted Great Britain were used until 12 December 1932 when specific stamps for the Protectorate were first issued.

Protectorate and abolished
However, the new Lord Protector, with no power base in either Parliament or the New Model Army, was forced to abdicate in 1659 and the Protectorate was abolished.
After Cromwell's death in 1658, the army abolished the Protectorate in 1659 and reconvened the Rump Parliament, with Sidney taking up his seat in the Commons.
During the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Nazi Germany, the party was officially abolished, but its members organised resistance movements illegally within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and abroad.
The Protectorate was abolished on 31 December 1849 and in 1852 he returned to England.
The Federation was abolished when it gained independence along with the Protectorate of South Arabia as the People's Republic of South Yemen on 30 November 1967.
When the British took over the territory the political authority of the Caliphate was abolished and put under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate ; however, the title of Sultan was retained and remains an important religious position for Muslims in the region to the current day.
Lugard abolished the Caliphate, but retained the title Sultan as a symbolic position in the newly organized Northern Nigeria Protectorate.

Protectorate and title
On the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, his son, Richard Cromwell, inherited the title Lord Protector, but internal divisions among the republican party lead to his resignation, the end of the Protectorate and a second period of Commonwealth government by a Council of State and Parliament.
A few years later, it was replaced by the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, effectively a monarch with the title of Lord Protector rather than King.
In spite of his near relationship to the Protectors family, he was one of the most violent opponents of the assumption by Cromwell of the royal title, and after the Protector's death, instead of supporting the interests and government of his nephew Richard Cromwell, he was, with Charles Fleetwood, the chief instigator and organizer of the hostility of the army towards his administration, and forced Richard Cromwell by threats and menaces to dissolve his Third Protectorate Parliament in April 1659.

Protectorate and King
* Tang China declares the deposed Bojang of Goguryeo " King of Joseon ," placing him in charge of the Liaodong area under the Protectorate General to Pacify the East.
In 1863, King Norodom of Cambodia was forced to put his own country under the French Protectorate.
Since Major ( later Sir ) Claude Maxwell Macdonald, the Consul General of the Oil River Protectorate authorities considered the ‘ Treaty ’ legal and binding, he deemed the King ’ s reaction a violation of the accord and thus a hostile act.
The trade embargo brought trade in the Benin River region to a standstill, and the British traders and agents of the British trading firms quickly appealed to the Protectorate ’ s Consul-General to ‘ open up ’ Benin territories, and send the King ( whom they claimed was an ‘ obstruction ’) into exile.
The revival of interest in alchemy in Britain was primarily due to the social uncertainties engendered by the social trauma of the Civil War, the execution of King Charles I and the establishment of the Commonwealth and Protectorate.
In 1884, the French authorities forced King Norodom to sign a treaty giving the French Protectorate virtually complete administrative control over Cambodia, including finances, a life line of Norodom's rule.
He served in the Egyptian campaign of 1882, from 1887 to 1889 was consul-general at Zanzibar, and then served some years as consul-general at Brass in the West African Oil Rivers Protectorate, where in 1895 he was an observer of the rebellion of King Koko of Nembe.
The final series of stamps for the Northern Nigeria Protectorate was a series of thirteen denominations depicting King George V.
The deposed king of Goguryeo, King Bojang was redesignated " King of Joseon " ( Hangul: 요동주도독 조선왕 Hanja: 遼東州都督朝鮮王 ) and made governor of the Protectorate.
In 677, Tang crowned Bojang " King of Joseon " and put him in charge of the Liaodong commandery ( Hangul: 요동주도독 조선왕 Hanja: 遼東州都督朝鮮王 ) of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East.
A free pardon was granted to everyone who had supported the Commonwealth and Protectorate, except for those who had directly participated in the trial and execution of King Charles I eleven years previously.

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