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Page "Anatolia" ¶ 90
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Turkish and language
It was influenced by its non-Slavic neighbors in the Balkan language area ( mostly grammatically ) and later also by Turkish, which was the official language of the Ottoman Empire, in the form of the Ottoman Turkish language, mostly lexically.
As a national revival occurred towards the end of the period of Ottoman rule ( mostly during the 19th century ), a modern Bulgarian literary language gradually emerged which drew heavily on Church Slavonic / Old Bulgarian ( and to some extent on literary Russian, which had preserved many lexical items from Church Slavonic ) and later reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkanic loans.
Vasea of Cyprus are broadly divided into two main ethnic communities, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, who share many customs but maintain distinct identities based on ethnicity, religion, language, and close ties with their respective motherlands.
* Tarkan – Turkish language singer
It is also the official language of Cyprus ( nominally alongside Turkish ).
Words of foreign origin have entered the language mainly from Latin, Venetian and Turkish.
The lost Spanish manuscript claimed to have been written in Istanbul, and the surviving Italian manuscript has several Turkish features ; so, whether the language of origin was Spanish or Italian, Istanbul is regarded by most students as the place of origin of the present text.
In Turkish however, it is a glyph, because that language has two distinct versions of the letter " i ", with and without a dot.
* Salih Yazıcı, 14th c. scribe ; writer of the masnavi Shemsiyye, a work of divinations in the Turkish language
For about the next 10 years, the country saw a steady process of secular Westernization through Atatürk's Reforms, which included the unification of education ; the discontinuation of religious and other titles ; the closure of Islamic courts and the replacement of Islamic canon law with a secular civil code modeled after Switzerland's and a penal code modeled after the Italian Penal Code ; recognition of the equality between the sexes and the granting of full political rights to women on 5 December 1934 ; the language reform initiated by the newly founded Turkish Language Association ; replacement of the Ottoman Turkish alphabet with the new Turkish alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet ; the dress law ( the wearing of a fez, is outlawed ); the law on family names ; and many others.
The classic example of an isolating language is Chinese ; the classic example of an agglutinative language is Turkish ; both Latin and Greek are classic examples of fusional languages.
If a language uses multiple writing systems, it may have distinct orthographies, as is the case with Kurdish, Uyghur, Serbian, Inuktitut and Turkish.
Cantemir's work is one of the earliest histories of the language, in which he notes, like Ureche before him, the evolution from Latin and notices the Greek, Turkish and Polish borrowings.
About 89. 4 % of the people of Romania are ethnic Romanians, whose language, Romanian, is an Eastern Romance language, descended primarily from Latin with some Bulgarian, Serbian, German, Greek, Hungarian and Turkish borrowings.
During his studies, he dedicated himself to mastering English — adding this language to the Persian, Turkish, Arabic and French, languages in which he was already fluent-so that he could translate the letters of ` Abdu ' l-Bahá and serve as his secretary.

Turkish and Islamic
The Organisation of the Islamic Conference ( now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation ) granted it observer member status under the name of " Turkish Cypriot State ".
The pages of the Italian manuscript are framed in an Islamic style, and contain chapter rubrics and margin notes in ungrammatical Arabic ; with an occasional Turkish word, and many Turkish syntactical features.
Although Muslim teaching at this time strongly opposed the printing of Islamic or Arabic texts, non-Muslim printing was not, in principle, forbidden ; indeed attempts were made in the 1570s by anti-Trinitarian Christians to establish a printing press in the Turkish capital to publish radical Protestant works.
Subsequently, the Galatians continued to be subsumed into the Greek world until their culture was barely indistinguishable from the Greeks before disappearing under the Turkish and Islamic Jihad and Genocide of Byzantine Anatolia.
This is believed to have ended the true Islamic system, something for which it blames " the disbelieving ( Kafir ) colonial powers " working through Turkish modernist Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
* Turkish Islamic Jihad
The honorary and informal Islamic title Hadji ( Turkish: Hacı ) in Piri's ( Hadji Ahmed Muhiddin Piri ) and his father's ( Hadji Mehmed Piri ) names indicate that they had completed the Hajj ( Islamic pilgrimage ) by going to Mecca during the dedicated period of Hadjj and fulfilling the required rituals.
The Ehl-i Hiref attracted the empire's most talented artisans to the Sultan's court, both from the Islamic world and recently conquered territories in Europe, resulting in a blend of Islamic, Turkish and European cultures.
Because it is a predominantly Islamic country, pork plays no role in Turkish cuisine.
Thus, the creation of Turkish hip hop in Germany ( primarily through such groups as Cartel and Islamic Force ) that sought to address Turkish nationalist identities was born.
In describing Turkish music, Mc Boe-B from Islamic Force tells the narrative, “ boy comes home and listens to hip hop, then his father comes along and says ‘ come on boy, we ’ re going shopping .’ They get in the car and the boy listens to Turkish music on the cassette player.
By rapping in English and mixing African-American hip-hop beats with Turkish Arabesk, Islamic Force is a perfect example of Boe-B ’ s kid who listens to both Turkish and American cassettes in his father ’ s car.

Turkish and religion
With the birth of the Turkish Republic after the First World War, St. Sophia became a museum, and the ancient mosaics, which were plastered over by the Moslems, whose religion forbids pictures in holy places, have been restored.
Mesnager ( 1717 ), in which he impersonates Nicolas Mesnager, the French plenipotentiary who negotiated the Treaty of Utrecht ( 1713 ) and A Continuation of the Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy ( 1718 ), a satire on European politics and religion, professedly written by a Muslim in Paris.
Durkheim, whose work Gökalp himself translated into Turkish, perceived religion as a means of unifying a population socially, and even " religion as society's worship of itself ".
Sunni Islam, the majority religion, is now controlled by the Turkish government through the Department of Religious Affairs, and is state-funded while other religions or sects have independence on religious affairs.
Another aspect is that recruiting personnel for the military and administration counterbalanced the grip of the old Turkish nobility, which was largely channeled into education, law, Muslim religion and the provincial cavalry, in the spirit of division of tasks and rights of the millet system which increased the cohesion of the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural empire by slowly eliminating non-Muslim culture with Ottoman holdings ..
The religion henceforth came to exercise an enormous influence on Turkish society and literature, particularly the heavily mystically oriented Sufi and Shi ' a varieties of Islam.
The National School educated its students in Arabic, French, English, Turkish, Latin and Greek and modern sciences without the pretense of religion but with an obvious nationalistic aim.
The reason for the ancient Persian, Mughal, and Ottoman Turkish aspects of Calormene culture, or the origin of their religion, was not satisfactorily explained.
Tengri ( Proto-Turkic * teŋri / * taŋrɨ ; Mongolian script:, Tngri ; Modern Mongolian: Тэнгэр, Tenger ; Old Turkic: ; Modern Turkish: Tanrı ), is one of the names for the primary chief deity in the religion of the early Turkic ( Xiongnu, Hunnic, Bulgar ) and Mongolic ( Xianbei ) peoples.
Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli sees even the Kizilbash of the 16th century-a radical Shī ‘ a movement in Persia which helped the Safavid dynasty establish this branch of Islam as the dominant religion of Iran-as " spiritual descendants of the Khurramites " and, hence, of the Mazdakites.
Most scholars have agreed that the Muslim Bulgarians are a religious group of Slav Bulgarians who speak Bulgarian as their mother tongue and do not understand Turkish, but whose religion and customs are Islamic.
Turkish influence was firmly established in the region after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, after which the Seljuk Turks and other Turkish tribes gained a strong foothold in Central Anatolia and Western Armenian Highlands, often referred to as Eastern Anatolia, bringing the local population in contact with the religion of Islam.
This claim seems to be supported by the Turkish cadastral tax-census ( defter ) of 1455 which took into account religion and language and found an overwhelming Serb majority.
The little community had very hard times in the 16th-17th centuries when Buda was under Turkish occupation but it survived thanks to the residents ' strong Calvinist religion.
The religion of Islam entered the region in many different ways, the Muslim traders, the Turkish conquest and, the missionary activities of the Muslim Sufis.
Islam is the main religion of the Turkish people in Turkey, where the CIA World factbook states that 99. 8 % of the country's population are nominally Muslims.
In the sphere of religion, Catholicism was the dominant faith and heavily emphasized because it was seen as differentiating the Polish Sarmatians from their Turkish and Tatar peers.
It is an introduction to Istanbul through its history, art, architecture, religion, cuisine, etc., framed as a memoir of Tillinghast's many visits to the Turkish city beginning when he was a graduate student.
Students of the history of religion have linked several magical practises in Islam with pre-Islamic Turkish and East African customs.
There was later circulation of nationalistic material comparing the " impalement of Đorđe Martinović " with Turkish forms of torture due to the shared Islamic religion between Albanians and Turks.
Under Ottoman rule Turkish Cypriots had been classified as Muslims, a distinction based on religion.

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