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The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France Since 1944.
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Vichy and Syndrome
In coming to terms with the events of the occupation, several different attitudes have emerged in France, in an evolution the historian Henry Rousso has called the " Vichy Syndrome ".
Vichy and History
* Simon Kitson, " Bousquet, Touvier and Papon: Three Vichy personalities " University of Portsmouth French History Interview series
Vichy and France
Riding trains, hitching hikes on trucks across Germany, slipping through guarded frontiers with the help of secret guides, he eventually reached Vichy France, and, by the winter of 1943, was back in Virginia.
He was a regent for the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems during the Nazi occupation of Vichy France which implemented the eugenics policies there ; his association with the Foundation led to allegations of collaborating with the Nazis.
Due to his close proximity with Jacques Doriot's fascist Parti Populaire Français ( PPF ) during the 1930s and his role in implementing eugenics policies during Vichy France, he was accused after the Liberation of collaborationism, but died before the trial.
From 16 June 1940-1942 the colonial administration remained loyal to Vichy France ( from 1942, under Free French ), but 25 September 1942-13 October 1946 they were, like Madagascar, under British occupation.
In June 1940, during the early stages of World War II, France fell and the colony was then ruled by the pro-Axis Vichy ( French ) government.
When the French public were asked to select which film they wanted to see most, having been told by the Vichy government that soon no more American films would be allowed in France, the overwhelming majority chose it over all others.
Vichy France was established on 10 July 1940 to govern the unoccupied part of France and its colonies.
The Vichy regime sought to collaborate with Germany, keeping peace in France to avoid further occupation although at the expense of personal freedom and individual safety.
After the Attack on Mers-el-Kébir in 1940, where the British fleet destroyed a large part of the French navy, still under command of Vichy France, that killed about 1, 100 sailors, there was nationwide indignation and a feeling of distrust in the French forces, leading to the events of the Battle of Dakar.
In November 1942 Vichy France was finally occupied by German forces, because the war in North Africa was coming to an end ; the Germans foresaw a threat in southern Europe by the allied forces.
Key legislative actions included declaration of the Vichy laws and acts as unconstitutional and therefore illegal, re-establishment of republican legality throughout metropolitan France, election of replacement local governments that had been suppressed by the Vichy regime, voting for women, and implementation of labour laws.
* 1940 – World War II: the United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations.
* 1940 – World War II: Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Chief of State of Vichy France ( Chef de l ' État Français ).
* 1942 – Holocaust: Vel'd ' Hiv Roundup ( Rafle du Vel'd ' Hiv ): the government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13, 152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz.
Ribbentrop, a Francophile, argued that Germany should allow Vichy France a limited degree of independence within a binding Franco-German partnership.
By January 1944, Germany had diplomatic relations with only a handful of countries: Argentina, Ireland, Vichy France, the Salo Republic in Italy, Occupied Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Bulgaria, Switzerland, the Holy See, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, and the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and the Wang Jingwei regime in China.
After the Vichy forces in the Middle East surrendered in July 1941, volunteers from the Troupes Spéciales du Levant enlisted in the Free French forces and participated in combat in Italy, North Africa, and southern France.
He was eventually captured by Vichy police and turned over to the Gestapo, which tortured and shot him in June 1944, just as the Nazis realized that the Allies were about to reconquer France ; Bloch became a national martyr after the Allied liberation.
Vichy and Since
Since exit visas could not be obtained, Fry arranged for the Werfels to journey on foot across the Pyrenees into Spain, in order to evade the Vichy French border officials.
Since the invasion began on May 5, aircraft from the British aircraft carriers HMS Indomitable and HMS Illustrious have suppressed Vichy French aircraft, supported British ground forces ashore, attacked coastal artillery, a wrecked a French sloop, and sunk a French armed merchant cruiser and two French submarines.
Since 1999, a group of scholars organized by René Germain has held an annual colloquium about Glozel in Vichy.
Since the nearest Axis bases were on Rhodes, the Allies realised that the plane had refueled in Vichy French controlled Syria or Lebanon.
Since the nearest Axis bases were on Rhodes, the Allies surmised that the plane had refueled in Vichy French controlled Syria or Lebanon.
Vichy and 1944
It is known as a spa and resort town and was the de facto capital of Vichy France during the World War II Nazi German occupation from 1940 to 1944.
* France ( 1940 – 1944 )-The Vichy French régime of Philippe Pétain had limited autonomy from 1940 to 1942, being heavily dependent on Germany.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain ( 24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951 ), generally known as Philippe Pétain ( or Marshal Pétain ( Maréchal Pétain ), was a French general who reached the distinction of Marshal of France, and was later Chief of State of Vichy France ( Chef de l ' État Français ), a puppet government, from 1940 to 1944.
The Affiche Rouge ( red placard ) is a famous propaganda poster that was distributed by the Vichy France | Vichy French and German authorities in the spring of 1944 in Military history of France during World War II | occupied Paris.
Its importance increased throughout the second half of 1943 and into the spring of 1944, until it became the largest BCRA network in the Vichy zone, employing about 2500 sources, contacts, couriers, and analysts.
The official épuration légale began following a June 1944 decree that established a three-tier system of judicial courts ; a High Court of Justice, which dealt with Vichy ministers and officials ; Courts of Justice for other serious cases of collaboration ; and regular Civic Courts for lesser cases of collaboration.
During the war, from 1942 to 1944, she worked for the Vichy government in an office that allocated paper to publishers ( in the process operating a de facto book censorship system ), but she was also a member of the French Resistance.
On May 6, 1981 details about his past under Vichy emerged, when Le Canard enchaîné newspaper published documents signed by Papon that showed his responsibility in the deportation of 1, 690 Bordeaux Jews to Drancy internment camp from 1942 to 1944.
On September 7, 1944, following the Allied invasion of France, Philippe Pétain and members of the Vichy government cabinet were relocated to Germany.
Following the fall of Vichy France in 1944 to the Allied Forces, Vanier was posted as Canada's first ambassador to France.
* Paxton, Robert O., Vichy France, Old Guard and New Order 1940 – 1944, New York: Columbia University Press, 1972 ( 1982 )
The CRS, created 8 December 1944 and reorganised in 1952, are a civilian corps ( unlike the gendarmes, who are military ) trained in anti-insurrection techniques following the dissolution of the Groupes mobiles de réserve ( GMR ) created by the Vichy régime.
Although officially returned to Vichy France, Menton was in fact occupied by Nazi Germany until its liberation by American and Canadian troops of the First Special Service Force on 8 September 1944.
Ironically, he wrote a letter to the editor of the National Post in response, but committed a further gaffe, confusing Canadian participation in the 1917 Battle of Vimy Ridge in France with Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
During the Second World War, the government moved to Vichy, but on August 21, 1944, it was in Paris that the resistance leader Yvon Morandat and his companion seized the " Government Mansion ", the Hôtel Matignon.
The NIR ( National Identification Repertory ) was created by René Carmille ( who died at the Dachau concentration camp in 1944 ) who realized between April and August 1941, under the Vichy regime, the first general repertory to secretly prepare the mobilization of a French army.
The crisis did not slow the pace of his career ; he was accused of accepting special favors ( the return of his confiscated villa, for instance, and the rare privilege of being allowed to drive on Sunday ), and he produced a commemorative tribute book to the president of the Etat Français Vichy France, Marshal Philippe Pétain, 1429-1942-From Joan of Arc to Philippe Petain, and presented it in an opera gala in June 1944.
On Bastille Day in 1944, as Allied forces were approaching the city, the prisoners revolted, an insurrection that was put down with great brutality and loss of life by the Vichy Milice.
Abetz is the great-nephew of SS-Brigadeführer Otto Abetz, Nazi German ambassador to Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
The notes had been printed in the United States and were distributed as a replacement for Vichy currency which had been used until June 1944, up to and including the successful Operation Overlord in Normandy.