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Page "belles_lettres" ¶ 354
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assumptions and upon
John Miles Foley held, specifically with reference to the Beowulf debate, that while comparative work was both necessary and valid, it must be conducted with a view to the particularities of a given tradition ; Foley argued with a view to developments of oral traditional theory that do not assume, or depend upon, finally unverifiable assumptions about composition, and that discard the oral / literate dichotomy focused on composition in favor of a more fluid continuum of traditionality and textuality.
1 ) The discount rate assumption relies on the market for competing investments at the time of the analysis, which would likely change, perhaps dramatically, over time, and 2 ) straight line assumptions about income increasing over ten years are generally based upon historic increases in market rent but never factors in the cyclical nature of many real estate markets.
Euclid's proofs depend upon assumptions perhaps not obvious in Euclid's fundamental axioms, in particular that certain movements of figures do not change their geometrical properties such as the lengths of sides and interior angles, the so-called Euclidean motions, which include translations and rotations of figures.
Particularly in the wake of the Lucas critique, much of modern macroeconomic theory has been built upon ' microfoundations '— i. e. based upon basic assumptions about micro-level behavior.
Francis Bacon argued the case for what would become modern science which would be based more upon real experience and experimentation, free from assumptions about metaphysics, and aimed at increasing control of nature.
Strong predestinarian views are basically undisturbed by these assumptions, because strong predestination is based upon God's knowledge of Himself and of His own purposes.
And reflecting upon original assumptions in 1995:
Sometimes they seek to challenge the assumptions upon which the student based the previous answer until it can no longer be defended.
Meta-ideology posits that ideology is a coherent system of ideas, relying upon a few basic assumptions about reality that may or may not have any factual basis, but are subjective choices that serve as the seed around which further thought grows.
The design of the Electoral College was based upon several assumptions and anticipations of the Framers of the Constitution:
None are so reliable that their estimates can be fully relied upon ; there are always assumptions which may be very difficult to confirm.
" Despite this admission, it seems Descartes ' project for understanding the world was that of re-creating creation-a cosmological project which aimed, through Descartes particular brand of experimental method, to show not merely the possibility of such a system, but to suggest that this way of looking at the world-one with ( as Descartes saw it ) no assumptions about God or nature-provided the only basis upon which he could see knowledge progressing ( as he states in Book II ).
The Köppen climate classification system was strongly influenced by effects of temperature and precipitation upon tree growth, and his oversimplified assumptions resulted in a tropical savanna classification concept which resulted in it being considered as a " climatic climax " formation.
The assumptions that the Big Bang relied upon are:
Hanoi had underestimated the strategic mobility of the allied forces, which allowed them to redeploy at will to threatened areas ; their battle plan was too complex and difficult to coordinate, which was amply demonstrated by the 30 January attacks ; their violation of the principle of mass, attacking everywhere instead of concentrating their forces on a few specific targets, allowed their forces to be defeated piecemeal ; the launching of massed attacks headlong into the teeth of vastly superior firepower ; and last, but not least, the incorrect assumptions upon which the entire campaign was based.
Breakthroughs in SMED and other process changing techniques rely upon clear identification of where untapped opportunities may lie if the processing assumptions are challenged.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
If the description of the system requires variations in the intensive parameters that are too large, the very assumptions upon which the definitions of these intensive parameters are based will break down, and the system will be in neither global nor local equilibrium.
Such predictions as to the effective range of gravity will vary and are dependent upon the specific aspects and assumptions as to the modes of interactions that are available during particle interactions.
Therefore the claim is already presupposed by the premises, and is no more " supported " than are the assumptions upon which the claim rests, i. e. begging the question.
His plan was built upon the assumptions that land could be bought in unlimited quantities and at reasonable rates, and that all subscribers would be successful farmers who would repay promptly.
CAE dependability is based upon all proper assumptions as inputs and must identify critical inputs ( BJ ).
For distances beyond that, measures depend upon physical assumptions, that is, the assertion that one recognizes the object in question, and the class of objects is homogeneous enough that its members can be used for meaningful estimation of distance.

assumptions and which
These are reasonable assumptions with low viscosity fluids suspended in high viscosity fluids which are subjected to low rates of shear.
Philosophy can prevent the working scientist from becoming slothful and self-content by noting the assumptions and level at which a hypothesis or theory is framed.
The analysis of variance can be presented in terms of a linear model, which makes the following assumptions about the probability distribution of the responses:
Problems which do not satisfy the assumptions of ANOVA can often be transformed to satisfy the assumptions.
The contrast between the " careful control against the almost inconceivable perversion of his scheme " and " the ridiculousness of the proposal " create a situation in which the reader has " to consider just what perverted values and assumptions would allow such a diligent, thoughtful, and conventional man to propose so perverse a plan ".
He also argues that alternative conceptions of morality exist which do not rely on the assumptions that Kant makes – he cites utilitarianism as an example which does not require the summum bonum.
Whorf argued that paying attention to how other physical phenomena are described in the study of linguistics could make valuable contributions to science by pointing out the ways in which certain assumptions about reality are implicit in the structure of language itself, and how language guides the attention of speakers towards certain phenomena in the world which risk becoming overemphasized while leaving other phenomena at risk of being overlooked.
In 1995, Simon Keynes observed that " if Bede's concept of the Southumbrian overlord, and the chronicler's concept of the ' Bretwalda ', are to be regarded as artificial constructs, which have no validity outside the context of the literary works in which they appear, we are released from the assumptions about political development which they seem to involve ... we might ask whether kings in the eighth and ninth centuries were quite so obsessed with the establishment of a pan-Southumbrian state ".
Crime in the social and legal framework is the set of facts or assumptions ( causes, consequences and objectives ) that are part of a case in which they were committed acts punishable under criminal law, and the application of which depends on the agent of a sentence or security measure criminal.
One example of the fruitfulness of questioning assumptions comes from questioning the assumption that " China was weak in the 19th century " and pointing out the fact that at the time in which China was supposedly weak, it managed to considerably extend its borders in Central Asia.
# Study of the ways in which all varieties of psychology are culturally historically constructed, and how alternative varieties of psychology may confirm or resist ideological assumptions in mainstream models ;
A key aim was to base categorization on colloquial English descriptive language ( which would be easier to use by federal administrative offices ), rather than assumptions of etiology, although its categorical approach assumed each particular pattern of symptoms in a category reflected a particular underlying pathology ( an approach described as " neo-Kraepelinian ").
The term " market failure " encompasses several problems which may undermine standard economic assumptions.
" Without these questions there is no clear fulcrum on which to balance law, politics, and the practice of arbitration — in fact, no common assumptions of all participants — so the ability to formulate the questions are prior to rights balancing.
Robert Lowie later said that Sapir's fascination with indigenous languages stemmed from the seminar with Boas in which Boas used examples from Native American languages to disprove all of Sapir's common-sense assumptions about the basic nature of Language.
Today, as in the time of Euripides, traditional assumptions are constantly under challenge and audiences therefore have a natural affinity with the Euripidean outlook which seems nearer to ours for example than the Elizabethan.

assumptions and example
For example, current scholars of China tend to question the question, and look heavily at the assumptions within a question before attempting to answer it.
For instance, if the expected sale price of John Doe's house in the example above was not $ 150, 000 in three years, but $ 130, 000 in three years or $ 150, 000 in five years, then on the above assumptions buying the house would actually cause John to lose money in present-value terms ( about $ 3, 000 in the first case, and about $ 8, 000 in the second ).
A number of economists ( for example Pierangelo Garegnani, Robert L. Vienneau, and Arrigo Opocher & Ian Steedman ), building on the work of Piero Sraffa, argue that that model, even given all its assumptions, is logically incoherent.
The development of algebraic geometry from its classical to modern forms is a particularly striking example of the way an area of mathematics can change radically in its viewpoint, without making what was correctly proved before in any way incorrect ; of course mathematical progress clarifies gaps in previous proofs, often by exposing hidden assumptions, which progress has revealed worth conceptualizing.
The contradiction of reductionism in conventional theory ( which has as its subject a single part ) is simply an example of changing assumptions.
A number of economists ( for example Pierangelo Garegnani, Robert L. Vienneau, and Arrigo Opocher & Ian Steedman ), building on the work of Piero Sraffa, argue that this model of the labor market, even given all its assumptions, is logically incoherent.
For example, when one observes a measured increase in temperature with a thermometer, that observation is based on assumptions about the nature of temperature and its measurement, as well as assumptions about how the thermometer functions.
For example the presence of an anomalous medieval pottery sherd in what was thought to be an Iron Age ditch feature could radically alter onsite thinking on the correct strategy for digging a site and save a lot of information being lost due to incorrect assumptions about the nature of the deposits which will be destroyed by the excavation process and in turn, limit the sites potential for revealing information for post-excavation specialists.
Proponents of using the terms rather than terms like " non-transsexual " or " non-trans " have argued that it calls attention to and unsettles the assumption that people, by default, have an internal sense of being male or female that matches the sex marker they were assigned at birth: for example, Jillana Enteen wrote that " cissexual " is " meant to show that there are embedded assumptions encoded in expecting this seamless conformity.
He demonstrates the absurdity with the narrowness of the assumptions by some economists with the following example of two strangers meeting on a street.
For example, the works of Jacques Derrida on the failure of language to impart the truth of the objects it is meant to represent would not be possible without Quintilian ’ s assumptions about the function of figurative language and tropes.
For example, Newtonian physics, general relativity and quantum mechanics are three distinct systems, each scientifically proven to have integrity according to their base assumptions and measures, but all three of which produce different extrapolated values when applied to real world situations.
For example, the variations in mindset between Democratic Party and Republican Party Presidents in the U. S. may have made that country more able to challenge assumptions than the Kremlin with its more static bureaucracy.
For example, supertasking Turing machines, under the usual assumptions, would be able to compute any predicate in the truth-table degree containing or.
For example, Colin Danby emphasizes how heteronormative assumptions have remained in economic models, including those of feminist economists, and offers strategies by which they may be overcome to better represent the diversity of the world's people.
For example, the Ptolemaic theory contained numerous ad hoc assumptions ; the Copernican theory is simple and parsimonious, and also more accurate.
For example, assumptions can be used as premises in a logical argument.
With certain assumptions on the function ( for example, convex and Lipschitz ) and particular choices of ( e. g., chosen via a line search that satisfies the Wolfe conditions ), convergence to a local minimum can be guaranteed.
Different clustering techniques make different assumptions on the structure of the data, often defined by some similarity metric and evaluated for example by internal compactness ( similarity between members of the same cluster ) and separation between different clusters.
In this case the rules can be read bottom-up ; for example, (∧ R ) says that, to prove that A ∧ B follows from the assumptions Γ and Σ, it suffices to prove that A can be concluded from Γ and B can be concluded from Σ, respectively.

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