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The capital expansion programs of business firms involve multi-year budgeting and the same is true of country development programs.
from Brown Corpus
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capital and expansion
The state can begin building a heavy industry at once in an underdeveloped economy without waiting years for capital to accumulate through the expansion of light industry, and without reliance on external financing.
The Inca civilization expansion northward from modern-day Peru during the late 15th century met with fierce resistance by several Ecuadorian tribes, particularly the Cañari, in the region around modern-day Cuenca ; the Cara in the Sierra north of Quito along with the Quitu, occupants of the site of the modern capital, with whom they had formed the Kingdom of Quito.
In his Prices and Production ( 1931 ), Hayek argued that the business cycle resulted from the central bank's inflationary credit expansion and its transmission over time, leading to a capital misallocation caused by the artificially low interest rates.
Thus, the capital of Kazakhstan lent its name to the Alma-Ata Declaration, in which eleven of the fifteen Soviet republics announced the expansion of the thirteen-day-old CIS.
Tirpitz saw this once again as an opportunity to press for naval expansion and the continuation of the four capital ships per year building rate into 1912.
Provincial cities, however, experienced equal and, in many cases, greater expansion than the capital.
The merged university undertook a massive expansion and a £ 350 million capital investment programme in new buildings.
Money markets allow firms to borrow funds on a short term basis, while capital markets allow corporations to gain long-term funding to support expansion.
Some believe that company profits are best re-invested back into the company: research and development, capital investment, expansion, etc.
This allows businesses to be publicly traded, or raise additional financial capital for expansion by selling shares of ownership of the company in a public market.
With the expansion of the Irish economy in the 1990s, during the " Celtic Tiger " years, Drogheda became one of the main secondary locations for people who work in Dublin to buy a house, as property prices in the capital became prohibitive for many first-time home buyers.
Government officials cited several problems with keeping the capital in Almaty, such as the city's risk of seismic activity, insufficient room for expansion, and proximity to international borders.
Port Moresby became the capital of the new combined territory and a focal point for the expansion of public services.
Over the last 50 years, since its establishment as the capital of Bhutan, Thimphu city has witnessed expansion, initially at a slow pace and rapidly after the country was opened up to the outside world in 1974 during the Coronation of the fourth King, Jigme Singye Wangchuck when international media were present, and which marked Bhutan's " debut appearance on the world stage.
The capital of the Carolina colony, Charles Town was the center for further expansion and the southernmost point of English settlement during the late 17th century.
Initial public offerings are used by companies to raise expansion capital, to possibly monetize the investments of early private investors, and to become publicly traded enterprises.
An $ 858 million capital campaign funded the 2002-2004 expansion, with David Rockefeller donating $ 77 million in cash.
Urgellet and Andorra were the originary County of Urgell with capital in la Seu d ' Urgell before the county expansion to the south.
Preceded in Ohio's capital by the Columbus Chill of the ECHL and the state of Ohio in general by the Cleveland Barons, the Blue Jackets were founded as an expansion team in 2000.
In relation with the expansion of Russian state to the East from Irkutsk, the city became a capital of enormous territories from the Enisey to the Pacific, it played an important role in the exploration and securing vast Eastern-Siberian and Far-Eastern territories to Russia.
* Financial institutions ( banks and other lending companies ) use them to decide whether to grant a company with fresh working capital or extend debt securities ( such as a long-term bank loan or debentures ) to finance expansion and other significant expenditures.
Increased competitiveness, extra funding and support for the information technology sector and high-tech industries, improvements in infrastructure, deregulation of trade, investments and corporate laws-all increased foreign capital investment and set in motion an economic expansion.
It was perfect for industrialization — big enough for profit and expansion, yet small enough to be developed by local capital without interference from Boston.
capital and programs
Civil right planks included equal rights for women and gays, replacing bans on abortion with prevention programs, and a national referendum on capital punishment.
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.
The assumption that imports carry moral hazards, and that tax, trade, tariff measures should compensate for harms done, is shared by advocates of fair trade whose programs address, in addition, more overt social justice concerns of human beings, such as the maintenance of the " human capital " of a region.
Instructional capital can be used to guide or limit or restrict action by people ( individual capital ) or equipment ( infrastructural capital ) ( if the learning materials are computer programs ).
Process capital includes the techniques, procedures, and programs that implement and enhance the delivery of goods and services.
* financing public sector programs through the capital market ( with adequate regulation or measures to prevent situations where the central government bears the risk for this borrowing ) and allowing private organizations to participate ; and
Amtrak also receives annual appropriations from the federal government to supplement operating and capital programs.
In Fiscal Year 2011, the U. S. Congress granted Amtrak $ 563 million for operating and $ 922 million for capital programs.
Johnson called for even more billions to be spent in the cities and another federal civil rights law regarding housing, but his political capital had been spent, and his Great Society programs lost support.
Unable to meet the borrowing requests of all their corporate customers, commercial banks helped their “ best customers ” establish programs to borrow directly from the “ capital markets ” by issuing commercial paper.
In his acceptance speech, Buchanan proposed US withdrawal from the United Nations and expelling the UN from New York, abolishing the Internal Revenue Service, Department of Education, Department of Energy, Department of Housing and Urban Development, taxes on inheritance and capital gains, and affirmative action programs.
* coordination ( a more consistent national strategic agenda for agricultural research and development ; more active involvement of research investors in collaboration with research providers developing programs of work ; greater coordination of research activities across industries, research organisations and issues ; and investment in human capital to ensure a skilled pool of research personnel in the future.
As a result, investors are allocating capital to secondary investments to diversify their private equity programs.
However, because initiation fees and annual membership fees are nominal, the trade organization lacks the ability to engage in offering its members national marketing capability, access to expensive technologies and cost-effective purchasing programs for major purchases due to a lack of capital.
Subsequent economic liberalization offered new opportunities for upward mobility — and risks of backsliding —, accompanied by the erosion of social capital and the breakdown or privatization of service programs.
Funds raised will be used to support the strategic priorities of the university, including academic programs, financial aid, Jesuit Catholic identity, athletics, student programming, and capital construction projects.
These programs can be used in coordination with energy efficient building programs like Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ( LEED ) which develop entire systems of energy efficient products that maximize energy savings and create additional tiers of rebate programs that can offset construction and capital costs.
According to Barrientos and Santibanez, the programs have been more successful in increasing investment in human capital than in bringing households above the poverty line.
The Autonomous University of Baja California and CETYS, a private not-for-profit university located in Mexicali, have started new programs such as Aerospace Engineering, Semiconductors and Microelectronics Engineering, Renewable Energy Engineering, Bioengineering, History and Sociology to prepare the required human capital for potential high-tech firms.