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Page "Central processing unit" ¶ 34
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clock and rate
The alternating current power line frequency of 60 Hz was the primary clock rate for the lowest level operations.
Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs ( see below for a discussion of clock rate ).
Every computer contains an internal clock that regulates the rate at which instructions are executed and synchronizes all the various computer components.
Therefore, as clock rate increases, so does heat dissipation, causing the CPU to require more effective cooling solutions.
The performance or speed of a processor depends on the clock rate ( generally given in multiples of hertz ) and the instructions per clock ( IPC ), which together are the factors for the instructions per second ( IPS ) that the CPU can perform.
Cyrix used a PR rating ( Performance Rating ) to relate their performance to the Intel P5 Pentium ( pre-P55C ), because a 6x86 at a lower clock rate outperformed the higher-clocked P5 Pentium.
Compared to single data rate ( SDR ) SDRAM, the DDR SDRAM interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals.
The name " double data rate " refers to the fact that a DDR SDRAM with a certain clock frequency achieves nearly twice the bandwidth of a SDR SDRAM running at the same clock frequency, due to this double pumping.
With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR SDRAM gives a transfer rate of ( memory bus clock rate ) × 2 ( for dual rate ) × 64 ( number of bits transferred ) / 8 ( number of bits / byte ).
To ensure this, any architectural feature that impeded multiple instruction issue, clock rate or multiprocessing was removed.
He considered an accelerating box, and noted that according to the special theory of relativity, the clock rate at the bottom of the box was slower than the clock rate at the top.
and for an observer at a constant value of r, the rate at which a clock ticks, R ( r ), is the square root of the time coefficient, R ( r )= r.
The constant is chosen to make the clock rate at infinity equal to 1.
The coefficient of the in the metric tensor is the square of the clock rate, which for small values of the potential is given by keeping only the linear term:
The F-1 was the fastest PDP-10 ever built, with a clock rate of 90-100 ns per cycle, but only one was ever made.
The arithmetic was actually implemented as subroutines, but with a one megahertz clock rate, the speed of floating point operations and fixed point was initially faster than many competing computers, and since it was only software, all the DEUCE's had it.

clock and is
Although he never gets to play while the clock is running, he gets a big kick -- several every Saturday, in fact -- out of football.
Due to the averaging it is far more stable than any clock would be alone ( see signal averaging for a discussion ).
" Analog " indicates something that is mathematically represented by a set of continuous values ; for example, the analog clock uses constantly-moving hands on a physical clock face, where moving the hands directly alters the information that clock is providing.
In telecommunications, asynchronous communication is transmission of data without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream .< ref >
One limitation ( also afflicting the Intel Pentium III ) is that SRAM cache designs at the time were incapable of keeping up with the Athlon's clock scalability, due both to manufacturing limitations of the cache chips and the difficulty of routing electrical connections to the cache chips themselves.
Undervolting is a process of determining the lowest voltage at which a CPU can remain stable at a given clock speed.
Image: clock forest. jpg | The Black Forest is known for its native clockmakers
Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312. 5 µs intervals.
Like the hard drive, there is nothing in a computer clock circuit or data transfer path that demands or even encourages that things happen at rates easily expressed using powers of 1024, or even using powers of 2.
For example, the internal clock frequency of the original IBM PC was 4. 77 MHz, that is, Hz.
A string is run out down the centre of the lane & wherever the jack lands it is moved across to the string and the length is called out by a sighted marker, when the woods are sent the distance from the jack is called out, in yards, feet and inches-the position in relation to the jack is given using the clock, 12. 00 is behind the jack.
Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play ; the referee can, however, make allowance for time lost through significant stoppages as described below.
Naga Munchetty, Komla Dumor and Martine Dennis present the BBC World News five o ' clock hour, which is also broadcast on the News Channel and BBC One.
At the south-east is a tall clock tower topped with turrets, one of which has a balustrade similar to a feature at Castle Fraser.

clock and speed
Later Athlon CPUs, afforded greater transistor budgets by smaller 180 nm and 130 nm process nodes, moved to on-die L2 cache at full CPU clock speed.
Thus initially the Level 2 cache ran at half of the CPU clock speed up to 700 MHz ( 350 MHz cache ).
AMD's older CPUs could simply be set to run at whatever clock speed the user chose on the motherboard, making it trivial to relabel a CPU and sell it as a faster grade than it was originally intended.
In October 2000, the Athlon " C " was introduced, raising the mainboard front side bus speed from 100 MHz to 133 MHz ( 266 MT / s ) and providing roughly 10 % extra performance per clock over the " B " model Thunderbird.
Thanks to both the increased reliability as well as the dramatically increased speed of the switching elements ( which were almost exclusively transistors by this time ), CPU clock rates in the tens of megahertz were obtained during this period.
Communication was controlled by the CPU, which had read and written data from the devices as if they are blocks of memory, using the same instructions, all timed by a central clock controlling the speed of the CPU.
These performance levels do not map to the clock speed of the chip itself ( for example, a PR 133 + ran at 110 MHz, a PR 166 + ran at 133 MHz, etc.
The 6x86 successor — MII — was late to market, and couldn't scale well in clock speed with the manufacturing processes used at the time.
Therefore, despite being very fast clock by clock, the 6x86 and MII were forced to compete at the low-end of the market as AMD K6 and Intel P6 Pentium II were always ahead on clock speed.
The original IBM PC included five 8-bit slots, running at the system clock speed of 4. 77 MHz.
The PC / AT, introduced in 1984, had three 8-bit slots and five 16-bit slots, all running at the system clock speed of 6 MHz in the earlier models and 8 MHz in the last version of the computer.
Ironically, one of the benefits to come out of the EISA standard was a final codification of the standard to which ISA slots and cards should be held ( in particular, clock speed was fixed at an industry standard of 8. 33 MHz ).
The speed of the hydrolysis reaction works as an internal clock for the length of the signal.
The processor, which is a Z80 workalike made by Sharp with a few extra ( bit manipulation ) instructions, has a clock speed of approximately 8 MHz, twice as fast as that of the original Game Boy.
However, a " C " speed rating was produced with either a 3. 0 or 3. 5 MHz maximum clock rate, depending on which datasheet is referenced.
The 8-bit bus ran at 4. 77 MHz ( the clock speed of the IBM PC and IBM PC / XT's 8088 CPU ), while the 16-bit bus operated at 6 or 8 MHz ( because the 80286 CPUs in IBM PC / AT computers ran at 6 MHz in early models and 8 MHz in later models.
) On average, the 80286 had a speed of about 0. 21 instructions per clock.
The i386SL was first available at 20 MHz clock speed, with the 25 MHz model later added.

0.088 seconds.