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The earliest high-level programming languages, including FORTRAN ( 1957 ), COBOL ( 1960 ), and ALGOL 60 ( 1960 ), had support for multi-dimensional arrays, and so has C ( 1972 ).
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earliest and programming
As one of the earliest programming languages, Lisp pioneered many ideas in computer science, including tree data structures, automatic storage management, dynamic typing, and the self-hosting compiler.
The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos.
The earliest programming languages were tied very closely to the underlying hardware of the computer.
This subsection describes those features of Scheme that have distinguished it from other programming languages from its earliest days.
SimpleText evolved from TeachText, which was derived from the Edit application, a simple text editor distributed with the earliest Macintosh operating systems to demonstrate the use of the Macintosh interface and the TextEdit application programming interface.
The earliest, and still the canonical example of an esoteric language was INTERCAL, designed in 1972 by Don Woods and James M. Lyon, with the stated intention of being unlike any other programming language the authors were familiar with.
: I think that the most fun I had programming was a summer job at Project MAC at MIT in the summer of 1966, where I worked on a program that created a job tape for the brand new GE 645 in the earliest days of Multics.
The earliest and still most common form of compiler-compiler is a parser generator, whose input is a grammar ( usually in BNF ) of a programming language, and whose generated output is the source code of a parser often used as a component of a compiler.
Very little programming survives from the earliest years of Australian TV ( 1956 – 1960 ) as kinescope recording to film was expensive, and most of what was recorded in this way has since been lost or destroyed.
The earliest programming concepts analogous to libraries were intended to separate data definitions from the program implementation.
While rarely achieving top ratings, cooking shows have been a popular staple of daytime TV programming since the earliest days of television.
Waterloo BASIC programming language was one of the earliest Watcom products and predates the existence of the company.
Meyer pursues the ideal of simple, elegant and user-friendly computer languages and is one of the earliest and most vocal proponents of object-oriented programming ( OOP ).
One of the earliest of these system programming languages was PL360, which had the general syntax of ALGOL 60, but whose statements directly manipulated CPU registers and memory.
The Art of Unix Programming by Eric S. Raymond is a book about the history and culture of Unix programming from its earliest days in 1969 to 2003 when it was published, covering both genetic derivations such as BSD and conceptual ones such as Linux.
The earliest versions of the system used only HP's proprietary SPL systems programming language and BASIC.
Few games exist for the earliest of programmable calculators ( including the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, one of the first scientific calculators ), including the long-popular Lunar Lander game often used as an early programming exercise.
" Radio Double C " also had Northern Michigan's earliest avante-garde modern rock programming late at night with the " Pen Ultimate " radio show hosted by Al Vasquez (" Alan White ") and Carolyn Beaudette, and was the home of Traverse City's first " real " production agency for radio commercials.
It was also notable that, during NBC's network coverage of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, news reports from WBAP-TV's studios were transmitted in color, with NBC broadcasting the coverage in New York from a black and white studio ( WBAP-TV was one of the earliest local stations to convert its local programming to color ).
From then into the mid-1970s, WXPN was a student activity of the university and as it grew, the station initiated unique programming designs including one of the earliest freeform radio formats, Phase II, in the 1960s.
In its earliest release, the software was primarily intended to create automation scripts ( sometimes called macros ) for Microsoft Windows programs but has since grown to include enhancements in both programming language design and overall functionality.
Negation as failure has been an important feature of logic programming since the earliest days of both Planner and Prolog.
earliest and languages
The earliest written evidence is found in the Linear B clay tablets in the " Room of the Chariot Tablets ", an LMIII A-context ( c. 1400 BC ) region of Knossos, in Crete, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living languages.
Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages.
This was the beginning of modern New Testament textual criticism, which over subsequent centuries would increasingly incorporate more and more manuscripts, in more languages ( i. e., versions of the New Testament ), as well as citations of the New Testament by ancient authors and the New Testament text in lectionaries in order to reconstruct the earliest recoverable form of the New Testament text and the history of changes to it.
The earliest versions of the New Testament are the translations into the Syriac, Latin, and Coptic languages.
From its earliest stirrings, with their focus on the development of national languages and folklore, and the spiritual value of local customs and traditions, to the movements that would redraw the map of Europe and lead to calls for " self-determination " of nationalities, nationalism was one of the key issues in Romanticism, determining its roles, expressions and meanings.
This qualifies Rigvedic Sanskrit as one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Iranian language, and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family, the family which includes English and most European languages.
Germanic umlaut is a specific historical example of this process that took place in the unattested earliest stages of Old English, Old High German, and some other old Germanic languages.
Facsimile reprints of the Unua Libro in Russian, Polish, French, German, English and Swedish, with the earliest Esperanto dictionaries for those languages.
Another factor that may have contributed to the relative neglect of creole languages in linguistics is that they do not fit the 19th century neogrammarian " tree model " for the evolution of languages, and its postulated regularity of sound changes ( such as the earliest advocates of the wave model, Johannes Schmidt and Hugo Schuchardt, the forerunners of modern sociolinguistics ).
Linguists ' observations of Old Malay ( sanscritised ), Old Javanese ( sanscritised ) and Old Bugis borrowings in the initial Proto-SEB languages, indicate that the first Hova waves came probably in the 8th century at the earliest.
This historical reconstruction accords best with the observed levels of divergence within the family, whereby the most divergent languages are found furthest west ( since they constitute the earliest branchings during eastern migration ), and the shallowest subgroupings are found furthest to the east ( Eastern Algonquian, and arguably Core Central ).
The chief architect of Poplog, responsible for many innovations related to making an incrementally compiled system portable, and providing support for a collection of languages was John Gibson, at Sussex University, though the earliest work was done by Steve Hardy.
One of the earliest ( 1964 ), surprisingly powerful, versions of compiler-compilers is META II, which accepted grammars and code generation rules, and is able to compile itself and other languages.
The word is cognate with the Hindu term Devi meaning goddess ( masculine Deva meaning god ) which in turn originates from the ancient Sanskrit language, one of the earliest Indo-European languages ; the word is also cognate with the Avestan term denoting the Zoroastrian concept of the Daevas and with the Lithuanian word deivė, meaning a female deity.
From the 18th century until the earliest parts of the 20th century, the primary languages spoken by the residents was German, or Pennsylvania Dutch.
Based on the degree of change, linguists ( e. g. Klimov, T. Gamkrelidze, G. Machavariani ) conjecture that the earliest split occurred in the second millennium BC or earlier, separating Svan from the other languages.
Entering the University of Bonn in 1819, Hengstenberg attended the lectures of Georg Wilhelm Freytag for Oriental languages and of Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler for church history, but his energies were principally devoted to philosophy and philology, and his earliest publication was an edition of the Arabic Mu ' allaqat of Imru ' al-Qais, which gained for him a prize at his graduation in the philosophical faculty.