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electric and field
The electric charge-to-mass ratio of a particle can be measured by observing the radius of curling of its cloud-chamber track in a magnetic field.
These ions, under the influence of the electric field, are accelerated into the cathode surface containing the sample, bombarding the sample and causing neutral sample atom ejection through the process known as sputtering.
Atom probes are unlike conventional optical or electron microscopes, in that the magnification effect comes from the magnification provided by a highly curved electric field, rather than by the manipulation of radiation paths.
Preparation is done, often by hand, to manufacture a tip radius sufficient to induce a high electric field, with radii on the order of 100 nm.
The application of the pulsed voltage to the sample allows for individual ions at the sample surface to have their electric field, and hence atomic bonding, temporarily disrupted.
Field ion microscopy techniques were initially construed as a modification of field emission, a technique which allows for a stream of electrons to be emitted from a sharp needle when subjected to a sufficiently high electric field (~ 3-6 V / nm ).
In field ion and atom probe methods, the polarity of the electric field is reversed, with a high positive field applied to the sample.
Field evaporation is an effect that can occur when an atom bonded at the surface of a material is in the presence of a sufficiently high and appropriately directed electric field, where the electric field is the differential of electric potential ( voltage ) with respect to distance.
Therefore the ion speed can be computed with the following equation, which relates kinetic energy to energy gain due to the electric field.
Whilst the magnification of both the field ion and atom probe microscopes is extremely high, the exact magnification is dependant upon conditions specific to the examined specimen, so unlike for conventional electron microscopes, there is often little direct control on magnification, and furthermore, obtained images may have strongly variable magnifications due to fluctuations in the shape of the electric field at the surface.
This corrugation gives rise to strong electric field gradients in the near-tip zone ( on the order of an atomic radii or less from the tip ), which during ionisation deflects ions away from the electric field normal.
Semi-conductor materials are often analysable in atom probe, however sample preparation may be more difficult, and interpretation of results may be more complex, particularly if the semi-conductor contains phases which evaporate at differing electric field strengths.
In 1879, Edwin Herbert Hall working at the Johns Hopkins University discovered the development of a voltage across conductors transverse to an electric current in the conductor and magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

electric and acts
Gravity always acts in attraction, drawing two masses together, while the electric field can result in either attraction or repulsion.
Ørsted's slightly obscure words were that " the electric conflict acts in a revolving manner.
** changing electric field acts like a current, generating ' vortex ' of magnetic field
His love of rock music led Marrow to use electric guitar in the instrumentation of his hip hop albums in order to provide his songs with edge and power, and to make his raps harder ; he used the fusion of rock and hip hop of Rick Rubin-produced acts like Beastie Boys, Run-DMC and LL Cool J, which featured rock samples in their songs.
Each turn of the coil is at a slightly different potential, so the electric field between neighboring turns stores charge on the wire, so the coil acts as if it has a capacitor in parallel with it.
As the electron in the atom makes a transition between two stationary states ( neither of which shows a dipole field ), it enters a transition state which does have a dipole field, and which acts like a small electric dipole, and this dipole oscillates at a characteristic frequency.
Magnetic fields in the magnetosphere arise from the Earth's internal magnetic field as well as from electric currents that flow in the magnetospheric plasma: the plasma acts as an electromagnet.
As the electron in the atom makes a transition between two stationary states ( neither of which shows a dipole field ), it enters a transition state which does have a dipole field, and which acts like a small electric dipole, and this dipole oscillates at a characteristic frequency.
An electromagnet is made from a coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it but stops being a magnet when the current stops.
In 2002 Scruggs won a second Grammy award for the 2001 recording of " Foggy Mountain Breakdown ", which featured artists such as Steve Martin on 2nd banjo solo ( Martin played the banjo tune on his 1970s stand-up comic acts ), Vince Gill and Albert Lee on electric guitar solos, Paul Shaffer on piano, Leon Russell on organ, and Marty Stuart on mandolin.
A corollary of Faraday's Law, together with Ampère's law and Ohm's law is Lenz's law: The EMF induced in an electric circuit always acts in such a direction that the current it drives around the circuit opposes the change in magnetic flux which produces the EMF.
The electric field being generated between the emitter and accelerator now acts on the liquid metal propellant.
The band's arrangement of " The House of the Rising Sun ", which transmuted the song from an acoustic folk lament to a full-bore electric rock song, would go on to influence many folk rock acts but none more so than Dylan himself, who cited it as a key factor in his decision to record and perform with an electric rock band during 1965.
During the 1970s, a similar style of country rock called southern rock ( fusing rock, country and blues music, and focusing on electric guitars and vocals ) was enjoying popularity with country audiences, thanks to such non-country acts as Lynyrd Skynyrd, The Allman Brothers Band and The Marshall Tucker Band.
In case of dielectric ( glass ), the electric field of the light acts on the electrons in the glass, the moving electrons generate a field and become a new radiator.
The Dirac string acts as the solenoid in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and the requirement that the position of the Dirac string should not be observable implies the Dirac quantization rule: the product of a magnetic charge and an electric charge must always be an integer multiple of.
When the effects of the electron thermal speed are taken into account, the electron pressure acts as a restoring force as well as the electric field and the oscillations propagate with frequency and wavenumber related by the longitudinal Langmuir wave:
Folk rock particularly took off in California, where it led acts like The Mamas & the Papas and Crosby, Stills and Nash to move to electric instrumentation, and in New York, where it spawned performers including The Lovin ' Spoonful and Simon and Garfunkel, with the latter's acoustic " The Sounds of Silence " being remixed with rock instruments to be the first of many hits.
The chamber geometry and the applied voltage is such that in most of the chamber the electric field strength is low and the chamber acts as an ion chamber.
On such steep grades, the motor acts as a regenerative brake -- the motor generates electric power, returns that power to the electric lines, and acts as a brake to prevent run-away acceleration down the grade.

electric and between
the association between electric ( both electrostatic and voltaic ) forces and magnetic forces had been recognized by investigators for many decades.
But when waves with a period of between 10 and 40 minutes begin to roll over the ocean, they set in motion a corresponding oscillation in a column of mercury which closes an electric circuit.
Ampère's force law states that there is an attractive or repulsive force between two parallel wires carrying an electric current.
The relation between electric current, magnetic fields and physical forces was first noted by Hans Christian Ørsted who, in 1820, observed a compass needle was deflected from pointing North when a current flowed in an adjacent wire.
After the completion of the Plovdiv-Dimitrovgrad high-speed line on 1 July 2012 the top operating speed was raised to 200 km / h and the national top speed record of 197 km / h set between Iskar and Elin Pelin with a leased Siemens Taurus electric locomotive is soon expected to be broken.
In basic electric circuit theory, when studying band-pass and band-reject filters, the bandwidth represents the distance between the two points in the frequency domain where the signal is of the maximum signal amplitude ( half power ).
A simple electric circuit, where current is represented by the letter i. The relationship between the voltage ( V ), resistance ( R ), and current ( I ) is V = IR ; this is known as Ohm's Law.
In the early cold cathode vacuum tubes, called Crookes tubes, this was done by using a high electrical potential between the anode and the cathode to ionize the residual gas in the tube ; the ions were accelerated by the electric field and released electrons when they collided with the cathode.
On the other hand, in measurements of electromagnetic phenomena ( involving units of charge, electric and magnetic fields, voltage, and so on ), converting between CGS and SI is much more subtle and involved.
An electron avalanche happens between two unconnected electrodes in a gas when an electric field exceeds a certain theshold.
For the simple electric dipole given above, the electric dipole moment points from the negative charge towards the positive charge, and has a magnitude equal to the strength of each charge times the separation between the charges.
** Electrostatic discharge, sudden and momentary electric current flows between two objects
However in nonlinear media, such as some crystals, interactions can occur between light and static electric and magnetic fields — these interactions include the Faraday effect and the Kerr effect.
Notable developments in this century include the work of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism.
This deflection convinced him that magnetic fields radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, just as light and heat do, and that it confirmed a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism.
One of the first to discover and publish a link between man-made electric current and magnetism was Romagnosi, who in 1802 noticed that connecting a wire across a voltaic pile deflected a nearby compass needle.
Beyond this point, electrical breakdown occurs and an electric arc causes flashover between the charged parts.
This definition of potential, while formal, has little practical application, and a more useful concept is that of electric potential difference, and is the energy required to move a unit charge between two specified points.
An electric field has the special property that it is conservative, which means that the path taken by the test charge is irrelevant: all paths between two specified points expend the same energy, and thus a unique value for potential difference may be stated.
Ørsted's discovery in 1821 that a magnetic field existed around all sides of a wire carrying an electric current indicated that there was a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism.
This relationship between magnetic fields and currents is extremely important, for it led to Michael Faraday's invention of the electric motor in 1821.
Maxwell developed a set of equations that could unambiguously describe the interrelationship between electric field, magnetic field, electric charge, and electric current.

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