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idea and organic
Kolbe developed the idea that organic compounds could be derived from inorganic ones, directly or indirectly, by substitution processes.
Lyell rejected Lamarck's idea of organic evolution, proposing instead " Centres of Creation " to explain diversity and territory of species.
During the 19th century the idea that men were everywhere and always the same that had characterized both classical antiquity and the Enlightenment was exchanged for a more organic and dynamic evolutionary concept of human history.
The whole idea of time and life as an ongoing, organic panorama centered on dozens of characters caught in the middle of that history.
He first investigated the rate of decrease in mean temperature with the increase in elevation above sea level, and afforded, by his inquiries regarding the origin of tropical storms, the earliest clue to the detection of the more complicated law governing atmospheric disturbances in higher latitudes ; while his essay on the geography of plants was based on the then novel idea of studying the distribution of organic life as affected by varying physical conditions.
From 1938, Fukuoka began to practise and experiment with new techniques on organic citrus orchards and used the observations gained to develop the idea of " Natural Farming ".
The idea of a spirit entirely independent of organic activity, must therefore have appeared to him very doubtful ; yet he appears to have contented himself with developing his doubts and difficulties on the point, without positively rejecting it.
The synthesis of urea ( and other organic substances ) from inorganic compounds refuted the idea that organic matter possessed a vital force.
' Like Comte, he was committed to the universality of natural law, the idea that the laws of nature applied without exception, to the organic realm as much as to the inorganic, and to the human mind as much as to the rest of creation.
* The Kataeb Party also believes in a free and active Christian presence in Lebanon and sees an organic relation between the idea of freedom and the Christians.
The related idea of a living machine is based on the most basic cycle of gardening: using wastes ( organic waste and sewage ), appropriately broken down, usually in some specialized container, on the soil, and harvesting food which, when processed, generates biodegradable waste, and when eaten, generates sewage.
Erasmus Darwin translated Buffon's idea of organic particles into " molecules with formative propensities " and in Germany Buffon's idea of an internal order, moule interieur arising out of the action of the penetrating powers was translated into German as Kraft ( power ).
: Kant, like other theorists of the Romantic era, came to rely on Blumenbach's biological concept of formative power in developing his idea of organic purpose.
However, the idea that they are living entities has now largely been discarded, and the particles are instead believed to be nonliving crystallizations of minerals and organic molecules.
Severe reprisals against insurgents, such as public executions and deportations to Siberia, led many people to abandon armed struggle and turn instead to the idea of " organic work ": economic and cultural self-improvement.
The idea is that once such a primitive autocatalytic metabolism was established, its intrinsically synthetic chemistry began to produce ever more complex organic compounds, ever more complex pathways and ever more complex catalytic centers.
it also introduced the idea of reality trees, a non-invasive organic device capable of merging two realities without damaging the inhabitants.
Throughout her career, Erdman pointed to this experience to demonstrate her aesthetic process of exploring the dynamic rhythms inherent in a seed movement idea to create a unique, organic form.
* " The basic idea of an Open Conspiracy to lead our divided, bickering tribes to the Cosmopolis of an organic world civilization is the most urgent idea of our time " ( Wagar ).
As with the 18th century, it would be developments in science that would arise from, and then challenge, philosophy: most importantly the work of Charles Darwin, which was based on the idea of organic self-regulation found in philosophers such as Adam Smith, but fundamentally challenged established conceptions.
The concept of an organic social manifestation as a concept in Russia expressed under the idea of sobornost.

idea and selection
The machines are released on a deserted island, the idea being that once the available metal is all used and they start fighting each other, natural selection will enhance their design.
This idea is in conflict with the evolutionary philosophy of paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, who preferred to stress the " pluralism " of evolution ( i. e., its dependence on many crucial factors, of which natural selection is only one ).
Mayr insisted throughout his career that the gene as the target of selection cannot and should not be considered a valid idea in modern evolutionary thought.
The idea that a few people have about the gene being the target of selection is completely impractical ; a gene is never visible to natural selection, and in the genotype, it is always in the context with other genes, and the interaction with those other genes make a particular gene either more favorable or less favorable.
Cecil Sharp had an influential idea about the process of folk variation: he felt that the competing variants of a traditional song would undergo a process akin to biological natural selection: only those new variants that were the most appealing to ordinary singers would be picked up by others and transmitted onward in time.
Some scholars have proposed the idea that the epistle is really John's commentary on a selection of traditional parallel couplets.
Studies of Charles Darwin's notebooks have shown that Darwin arrived separately at the idea of natural selection which he set out in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, but it has been speculated that he may have had some half-forgotten memory from his time as a student in Edinburgh of ideas of selection in nature as set out by Hutton, and by William Charles Wells and Patrick Matthew who had both been associated with the city before publishing their ideas on the topic early in the 19th century.
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection undermined religious certainty and the idea of human uniqueness.
However, the ' politically correct ' thought agendas of the neo-Darwinists of the 1990s are ideologically opposed to the idea of ' Lamarckian Feedback ', just as the Church was opposed to the idea of evolution based on natural selection in the 1850s!
The idea that direct election is required for legitimacy also contradicts the spirit of the Great Compromise, whose actual result was manifest in the clause that provides voters in smaller states with slightly more representation in presidential selection than those in large states.
While Darwin considered Wallace's idea to be identical to his concept of natural selection, historians have pointed out differences.
Later chapters provide evidence that evolution has occurred, supporting the idea of branching, adaptive evolution without directly proving that selection is the mechanism.
Some political commentaries, including Walter Bagehot's Physics and Politics ( 1872 ), attempted to extend the idea of natural selection to competition between nations and between human races.
Many of those whom subsequent centuries term evolutionary biologists read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, for each of whom Malthusianism became an intellectual stepping-stone to the idea of natural selection.
" My program is unique in the military service in this respect: You know the expression ' from the womb to the tomb '; my organization is responsible for initiating the idea for a project ; for doing the research, and the development ; designing and building the equipment that goes into the ships ; for the operations of the ship ; for the selection of the officers and men who man the ship ; for their education and training.
Some biologists have criticised the idea for describing the gene as the unit of selection, but suggest describing the gene as the unit of evolution, on the grounds that selection is a " here and now " event of reproduction and survival, while evolution is the long-term trend of shifting allele frequencies.
Different nations deal with the idea of judicial independence through different means of judicial selection, or choosing judges.
Dawkins then describes his experiences with a more sophisticated computer model of artificial selection implemented in a program also called The Blind Watchmaker, which was sold separately as a teaching aid ( open source implementations are currently available, as are more advanced versions of the idea ).
Weismann's idea was that the relationship between the hereditary material, which he called the germ plasm ( German, Keimplasma ), and the rest of the body ( the soma ) was a one-way relationship: the germ-plasm formed the body, but the body did not influence the germ-plasm, except indirectly in its participation in a population subject to natural selection.
In this and subsequent papers culminating in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Fisher was able to show how Mendelian genetics was, contrary to the thinking of many early geneticists, completely consistent with the idea of evolution driven by natural selection.
Simpson's work was crucial because so many paleontologists had disagreed, in some cases vigorously, with the idea that natural selection was the main mechanism of evolution.

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