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The invention of the photomultiplier is predicated upon two prior achievements, the discoveries of the photoelectric effect and the secondary emission ( i. e., the ability of electrons in a vacuum tube to cause the emission of additional electrons by striking an electrode ).
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invention and is
A broader concept of imitation is needed, one which acknowledges that true invention is important, that the artist's creativity in part transcends the non-artistic causal factors out of which it arises.
Accordingly, it is the aim of this essay to advance a new theory of imitation ( which I shall call mimesis in order to distinguish it from earlier theories of imitation ) and a new theory of invention ( which I shall call symbol for reasons to be stated hereafter ).
As long as perception is seen as composed only of isolated sense data, most of the quality and interconnectedness of existence loses its objectivity, becomes an invention of consciousness, and the result is a philosophical scepticism.
`` My personal view is that not one patented invention in ten is worth making '', he later told a Congressional committee.
In the context of patent law and specifically in prior art searches, searching through abstracts is a common way to find relevant prior art document to question to novelty or inventive step ( or non-obviousness in United States patent law ) of an invention.
It condemned him for his invention of dynamite and is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death.
The concept and theory of Kolmogorov Complexity is based on a crucial theorem first discovered by Ray Solomonoff, who published it in 1960, describing it in " A Preliminary Report on a General Theory of Inductive Inference " as part of his invention of algorithmic probability.
There is no contemporary evidence that Alfred and Guthrum agreed upon a formal treaty at this time ; the so-called Treaty of Wedmore is an invention of modern historians.
His promotion of it was so extensive that he is often credited with its invention, even though a machine operating in the same principle was described in 1762 by Swedish professor Johan Wilcke.
Parkinson challenges the argument from moral objectivity by arguing that, for the argument to be successful, it must be shown that morality is objective and commanded by God, rather than just a human invention.
Perhaps Grothendieck's deepest single accomplishment is the invention of the étale and l-adic cohomology theories, which explain an observation of André Weil's that there is a deep connection between the topological characteristics of a variety and its diophantine ( number theoretic ) properties.
Finally, in 1740 the French astronomer Jacques Cassini, who is traditionally credited with the invention of year zero, completed the transition in his Tables astronomiques, simply labeling this year 0, which he placed at the end of Julian years labeled avant Jesus-Christ ( before Jesus Christ or BC ), and immediately before Julian years labeled après Jesus-Christ ( after Jesus Christ or AD ).
It is unclear whether the word dates back to the 5th century and was used by the kings themselves, or whether it is a later, 9th-century, invention.
invention and upon
CAutoD can be applied not just to tuning a predefined control scheme, but also to controller structure optimisation, system identification and invention of novel control systems, based purely upon a performance requirement, independent of any specific control scheme.
Although silk was a somewhat expensive medium to paint upon in the past, the invention of paper during the 1st century AD by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun provided not only a cheap and widespread medium for writing, but also a cheap and widespread medium for painting ( making it more accessible to the public ).
Being pressured by his advisers to declare coffee the " bitter invention of Satan " because of its popularity among Muslims and it being a sort of antithesis or substitute for wine ( which was used in the Eucharist ), upon tasting it he instead declared that, " This devil's drink is so delicious ... we should cheat the devil by baptizing it.
The London Gazette of 17 March 1691 published a patent in favour of John Lofting for a fire engine, but remarked upon and recommended another invention of his, for a beer pump:
" He writes, " Discovery and invention have made it possible for the Government, by means far more effective than stretching upon the rack, to obtain disclosure in court of what is whispered in the closet.
He rediscovered the process to make a good pencil out of inferior graphite by using clay as the binder ; this invention improved upon graphite found in New Hampshire and bought in 1821 by relative Charles Dunbar.
* In L. Sprague de Camp's Viagens books the planet Krishna is protected by Regulation 368 whose Section 4, subsection 24, paragraph 15 reads: " it is forbidden to communicate to any native resident of the planet Krishna any device, appliance, machine, tool, weapon, or invention representing an improvement upon the science and technology already in existence upon this planet.
That Livy's euhemerist and realist deflation of this myth, so central to the origins of Rome, was not general is demonstrated by the recurring theme of Mars discovering Rhea Silvia – the Latinists ' " invention " ( to come upon ) of Rhea Silvia " – in Roman arts: in bas-relief on the Casali Altar ( Vatican Museums ), in engraved couched glass on the Portland Vase ( British Museum ), or on a sarcophagus in the Palazzo Mattei.
The invention of the refrigerated rail car further increased the viability of an economy based upon fruit.
It is said that the stone upon which the baby landed glows red annually on the anniversary of this event, whilst others says that this story is the invention of one of the Kimbolton School history staff.
The invention of the electrical telegraph came under the control of the Telegraph Act 1869 which was based upon a law that forbade the encoding of electrical cables with messages without a licence.
Building upon this growing interest in his life, in 1704 Psalmanazar published a book entitled An Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa, an Island subject to the Emperor of Japan which purported to be a detailed description of Formosan customs, geography and political economy, but which was in fact a complete invention on Psalmanazar's part.
He noted that " all modern industry depends upon programmed computers, and one must be astute not to defeat patents on the ground that the subject matter is excluded under Article 52 unless the invention lies in excluded subject matter as such " ( emphasis added ).
It was built with four of Intermetall's hand-made transistors, based upon the 1948 invention of Herbert Mataré and Heinrich Welker.
* December 18-Joseph Swan of Newcastle upon Tyne in England announces his invention of an incandescent light bulb.
Their invention is generally credited to the Portuguese people, who first explored south along the coast of Africa searching for a trade route to the far east in order to avoid the costly middlemen of the Eastern Mediterranean civilizations who sat upon the routes of the spice trade.
The invention was prompted by the Felling mine disaster near Newcastle upon Tyne claiming 92 lives on 25 May 1812.
He finally came upon what George A. Spratt already had found for aviation and any hang glider: triangle control frame or A-frame in front of pilot while pilot hung from a tether either in a seat or harness for various positions ; the mechanical arrangement precluded invention in later years for the same.
This became manageable in the mid-19th century upon the invention of steam power ships and the opening of the Suez Canal, which reduced the travel time from Spain to the Philippines to 40 days.
These legal services include advising a client on matters relating to the licensing of the invention ; whether to appeal a decision by the Patent Office to a court ; whether to sue for infringement ; whether someone is infringing upon the claims of a client's issued patent ; and conversely, whether a client is infringing the claims of someone else's issued patent.
Additionally, one of Magtymguly's poems recounts a dream in which Omar Khayyam bestowed upon him the gift of poetic invention.
:" Much the greatest part of the story was Mr. Coleridge's invention ; but certain parts I myself suggested: — for example, some crime was to be committed which should bring upon the old Navigator, as Coleridge afterwards delighted to call him, the spectral persecution, as a consequence of that crime, and his own wanderings.