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Page "lore" ¶ 608
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luminosity and water
After the water evaporates, the acacia gum in the paint film increases luminosity and helps prevent the colors from lightening.
However, with the predicted solar luminosity ago and with greenhouse gas concentrations the same as are current for the modern Earth, any liquid water exposed to the surface would freeze.
The outermost planet discovered appears to be within the system's habitable zone, where liquid water would remain stable ( more accurate data on the primary star's luminosity will be required to know for sure where the habitable zone is ).

luminosity and is
The absolute magnitude is then equivalent to the apparent magnitude an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance ( 10 parsecs ) away from the observer, in the absence of astronomical extinction.
Bolometric magnitude is luminosity expressed in magnitude units ; it takes into account energy radiated at all wavelengths, whether observed or not.
For galaxies ( which are of course themselves much larger than 10 parsecs, and whose overall brightness cannot be directly observed from relatively short distances ) the absolute magnitude is defined by reference to the apparent brightness of a point-like or star-like source of the same total luminosity as the galaxy, as it would appear if observed at the standard 10 parsecs distance.
where is the star's luminosity distance in parsecs, wherein 1 parsec is approximately 3. 2616 light-years.
For nearby astronomical objects ( such as stars in our galaxy ) luminosity distance D < sub > L </ sub > is almost identical to the real distance to the object, because spacetime within our galaxy is almost Euclidean.
For much more distant objects the Euclidean approximation is not valid, and General Relativity must be taken into account when calculating the luminosity distance of an object.
Bolometric magnitude corresponds to luminosity, expressed in magnitude units ; that is, after taking into account all electromagnetic wavelengths, including those unobserved due to instrumental pass-band, the Earth's atmospheric absorption, or extinction by interstellar dust.
Its visual luminosity is about 10, 000 times that of the Sun, but because the star radiates a considerable part of its energy in the infrared part of the spectrum, the bolometric luminosity equals roughly 65, 000 times that of the Sun.
At magnitude 5. 5, it is only 1 / 370th as bright visually as Antares A, although it shines with 170 times the Sun's luminosity.
Altair is a type-A main sequence star with approximately 1. 8 times the mass of the Sun and 11 times its luminosity.
Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law.
The candela ( or ; symbol: cd ) is the SI base unit of luminous intensity ; that is, power emitted by a light source in a particular direction, weighted by the luminosity function ( a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths, also known as the luminous efficiency function ).
where I < sub > v </ sub >( λ ) is the luminous intensity in candelas, I < sub > e </ sub >( λ ) is the radiant intensity in W / sr and is the standard luminosity function.
A strong indication of the reliability of Chandrasekhar's formula is that the absolute magnitudes of supernovae of Type Ia are all approximately the same ; at maximum luminosity, M < sub > V </ sub > is approximately-19. 3, with a standard deviation of no more than 0. 3 .< sup >, ( 1 )</ sup > A 1-sigma interval therefore represents a factor of less than 2 in luminosity.
* Contrast ratio is the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color ( white ) to that of the darkest color ( black ) that the monitor is capable of producing.

luminosity and now
The spectrum of this star matches a stellar classification of, with the luminosity class of III indicating that it is an evolved giant star that has exhausted the supply of hydrogen at its core and is now on the red giant branch.
Central supermassive black holes are now believed to exist in the centers of most or all massive galaxies: the mass of the black hole correlates well with the velocity dispersion of the galaxy bulge ( the M-sigma relation ) or with bulge luminosity ( e. g .).
As of 2009 it has increased in both temperature ( now class M6. 3I and 3, 270K ) and luminosity ( now 15, 000 times solar ), but decreased in radius ( now 380 times the sun ) although the ejecta continues to expand.
At this point, the surface temperature of the star, now typically a red giant, will remain approximately constant as its luminosity and radius increase drastically.
It will then increase in luminosity again as, now an AGB star, it ascends the asymptotic giant branch of the Hertzsprung – Russell diagram.
Seeing the luminosity, intelligence and general superiority of the now animate Adam, Yaltabaoth and the Archons regret their creation and do their best to imprison or dispose of him.
This is now understood to reflect the effects of both density and luminosity evolution of the principal radio sources over cosmic timescales.
As a result, it has expanded to over ten times the Sun's girth and is now radiating around 77 times as much luminosity as the Sun.

luminosity and believed
This pregnancy was not a hindrance to her work, as Witherspoon believed the gestation had in fact helped her portrayal of Sharp's character: " I love the luminosity that pregnancy brings, I love the fleshiness, I love the ample bosom — it gave me much more to play with ", she said.
The large luminosity of quasars is believed to be a result of gas being accreted by supermassive black holes.
Astronomers who believed quasars were not at cosmological distances argued that the Eddington luminosity set limits on how distant the quasars could be since the energy output required to explain the apparent brightness of cosmologically-distant quasars was far too high to be explainable by nuclear fusion alone.
The central star, a very hot bluish dwarf with a temperature of 55, 000 K, from which the nebula is believed to originate, has an absolute magnitude of + 1. 5, which equates to a luminosity of about 20 Suns and a visual magnitude of 11. 5.
This star is believed to be a Delta Scuti variable star that exhibits fluctuations in luminosity of 0. 025 magnitudes roughly ten times per day.
Based on luminosity measurement, the circumstellar habitable zone ( CHZ ) is believed to be located between 0. 116 to 0. 227 AU.
The white dwarf is believed to have a mass approximately 0. 7 times the mass of the Sun and is radiating at 7, 700 times the Sun's luminosity.
These spots are believed to cause variations in their observed luminosity.

luminosity and have
Cepheids have been shown to have a relationship between their absolute luminosity and the period over which their brightness varies.
Even the largest red dwarfs ( for example HD 179930, HIP 12961 and Lacaille 8760 ) have only about 10 % of the Sun's luminosity.
Astronomers think that the sun had about 70 – 75 % of the present luminosity, yet temperatures appear to have been near modern levels even within 500 Ma of Earth's formation, which is puzzling ( the faint young sun paradox ).
Many, possibly most, stars have at least some variation in luminosity: the energy output of our Sun, for example, varies by about 0. 1 % over an 11 year solar cycle.
* Cepheids and cepheid-like stars They have short periods ( days to months ) and their luminosity cycle is very regular ;
Type II Cepheids ( historically termed W Virginis stars ) have clock regular light pulsations and a luminosity relation much like the δ Cephei variables, so initially they were confused with the latter category.
The major works of the last years of Strauss's life, written in his late 70s and 80s, have a luminosity which matches anything he had composed earlier in his life, and they surpass most of them in emotional depth.
Supergiants can have masses from 10 to 70 solar masses and brightness from 30, 000 up to hundreds of thousands times the solar luminosity.
However, even at that time the anomalously low luminosity ( the absolute magnitude would have been 18. 5 ) and high uncertainty in the parallax suggested that it was in fact somewhat farther away, still one of the Sun's nearest neighbors but not nearly as high in the ranking in order of distance.
There are two physical types of ellipticals ; the " boxy " giant ellipticals, whose shapes result from random motion which is greater in some directions than in others ( anisotropic random motion ), and the " disky " normal and low luminosity ellipticals, which have nearly isotropic random velocities but are flattened due to rotation.
Some bulges have similar properties to those of elliptical galaxies ( scaled down to lower mass and luminosity ); others simply appear as higher density centers of disks, with properties similar to disk galaxies.
Since most massive stars have luminosities far below the Eddington luminosity, however, their winds are mostly driven by the less intense line absorption.
For accreting black holes, all the energy released by accretion does not have to appear as outgoing luminosity, since energy can be lost through the event horizon, down the hole.
Of the 20 or so members of the Be X-ray binary systems, as of 1996, only X Per and LSI + 61 ° 303 have X-ray outbursts of much higher luminosity and harder spectrum ( kT ≈ 10 – 20 keV ) vs. ( kT ≤ 1 keV ); however, LSI + 61 ° 303 further distinguishes itself by its strong, outbursting radio emission.
Other stars, including most of those visible to us, will have had most of their outer layers blown away by their high luminosity to become a Wolf-Rayet star and will explode as type Ib or type Ic supernovae.
In this first phase of the simulation we see that black daisies have warmed Daisyworld so that it is habitable over a wider range of solar luminosity than would have been possible on a barren, gray planet.
Blue giants have a surface temperature of around 30, 000 K and a luminosity some 10, 000 times that of the Sun.
If lenticular galaxies are an evolved stage of spiral galaxies then they should have a similar Tully-Fisher relation with spirals, but with an offset in the luminosity / absolute magnitude axis.
Radiation pressure can produce about 3. 35 nanonewtons of force per watt of luminosity, so for a 1-gravity drive there would have to be about 3 gigawatts of luminosity per kilogram of ship mass.
Sentient beings who have not practiced during their lived experience and / or who do not recognize the clear light ( Tibetan: od gsal ) at the moment of death are usually deluded throughout the fifth bardo of luminosity.

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