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The outcome of a cladistic analysis is a cladogram – a tree-shaped diagram ( dendrogram ) that represents a phylogenetic hypothesis, a hypothesis on evolutionary relationships.
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outcome and analysis
Multivariate statistics is a form of statistics encompassing the simultaneous observation and analysis of more than one outcome variable.
In Méthodologie Historique ( written in 1906 but not published until 1988 ), Bloch rejected the histoire événementielle ( event history ) of his mentors Charles-Victor Langlois and Charles Seignobos to argue for greater analysis of the role of structural and social phenomena in determining the outcome of historical events.
However, by developing explicit processes that generate change from individuals, groups or communities ( Theories of Change ), and by fusing political economy analysis and outcome mapping tools, the complex state-citizen dynamics can be better understood.
In statistics, logistic regression is a type of regression analysis used for predicting the outcome of a categorical ( a variable that can take on a limited number of categories ) criterion variable based on one or more predictor variables.
The particular model used by logistic regression, which distinguishes it from standard linear regression and from other types of regression analysis used for binary-valued outcomes, is the way the probability of a particular outcome is linked to the linear predictor function:
For example, in an analysis comparing outcomes in a treated and control population, the difference of outcome means < span style =" text-decoration: overline "> Y </ span > − < span style =" text-decoration: overline "> X </ span > would be a direct measure of the effect size, whereas (< span style =" text-decoration: overline "> Y </ span > − < span style =" text-decoration: overline "> X </ span >)/ σ where σ is the common standard deviation of the outcomes in the treated and control groups, would be a standardized effect size.
In statistics and econometrics, particularly in regression analysis, a dummy variable ( also known as an indicator variable ) is one that takes the values 0 or 1 to indicate the absence or presence of some categorical effect that may be expected to shift the outcome.
* A first theme is that contrary to the common perception, legal materials ( such as statutes and case law ) do not completely determine the outcome of legal disputes, or, to put it differently, the law may well impose many significant constraints on the adjudicators in the form of substantive rules, but, in the final analysis, this may often not be enough to bind them to come to a particular decision in a given particular case.
* In sum, the primary tasks of sociological analysis are the following: ( 1 ) The hermeneutic explication and mediation of divergent forms of life within descriptive metalanguages of social science ; ( 2 ) Explication of the production and reproduction of society as the accomplished outcome of human agency.
Interest groups may attempt to include or exclude significant costs from an analysis to influence the outcome.
Importantly, the application of sequential analysis techniques allow the outcome of earlier experiments to influence the design of the next experiment, based on the updating of beliefs as expressed by the prior and posterior distribution.
She emphasised the importance of temporality in social analysis, dividing it into four stages: structural conditioning, social interaction, its immediate outcome and structural elaboration.
Experimental and theoretical analysis of coin tossing has shown that the outcome is predictable, to some degree at least, if the initial conditions of the toss ( position, velocity and angular momentum ) are known.
Hooper alleges several flaws in experimental methodology, including gluing the moths in place on parts of trees where they would not naturally settle, feeding birds heavily enough to condition them to expect feeding at that point, artificially boosting recapture rates, altering experiments ( unconsciously ) to favour the expected outcome, and errors in statistical analysis.
* Classification tree analysis is when the predicted outcome is the class to which the data belongs.
* Regression tree analysis is when the predicted outcome can be considered a real number ( e. g. the price of a house, or a patient ’ s length of stay in a hospital ).
An adequate intensity of stimulation is necessary to achieve pain relief with TENS .. An analysis of treatment fidelity ( meaning that the delivery of TENS in a trial was in accordance with current clinical advice, such as using " a strong but comfortable sensation " and suitable, frequent treatment durations ) showed that higher fidelity trials tended to have a positive outcome.
The core of his analysis is that human minds are the outcome of a successful series of interactions between infant and caregiver ( s ).
Simple power analysis can easily distinguish the outcome of conditional branches in the execution of cryptographic software, since a device does different things ( consuming different power ) depending on whether the conditional branch is taken.
Estimates of covariance matrices are required at the initial stages of principal component analysis and factor analysis, and are also involved in versions of regression analysis that treat the dependent variables in a data-set, jointly with the independent variable as the outcome of a random sample.
outcome and is
Often it is recognized that all the details of the pattern may not be essential to the outcome but, because the pattern was empirically determined and not developed through theoretical understanding, one is never quite certain which behavior elements are effective, and the whole pattern becomes ritualized.
After all, when one has asked whatever became of old Joe and Charlie when one has inquired who it was Sue Brown married and where it is they now live when questions are asked and answered about families and children, and old professors when the game and its probable outcome has been exhausted that does it.
This matter is of great importance, and the outcome may mean the difference between life or death, or at least serious injuries, for many veterans.
Then, too, the utmost clinical flexibility is necessary in judiciously combining carefully timed family-oriented home visits, single and group office interviews, and appropriate telephone follow-up calls, if the worker is to be genuinely accessible and if the predicted unhealthy outcome is to be actually averted in accordance with the principles of preventive intervention.
Especially noteworthy is Levinger's finding that the length of treatment per se is not a reliable indicator of successful outcome.
Autosuggestibility, the reaction of the subject in such a way as to conform to his own expectations of the outcome ( i.e., that the arm-rise is a reaction to the pressure exerted in the voluntary contraction, because of his knowledge that `` to every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction '' ) also seems inadequate as an explanation for the following reasons: ( 1 ) the subjects' apparently genuine experience of surprise when their arms rose, and ( 2 ) manifestations of the phenomenon despite anticipations of something else happening ( e.g., of becoming dizzy and maybe falling, an expectation spontaneously volunteered by one of the subjects ).
The process in which the outcome of any one stage is known only statistically is also of interest, although for chemical reactor design it is not as important as the deterministic process.
If we consider a process in which the outcome of one stage is known before passage to the next, then the principle of optimality shows that the policy in subsequent stages should be optimal with respect to the outcome of the first.
The discussion of the optimal policy when the outcome of one stage is not known before passing to the next is a very much more difficult matter.
This means that a party who is unsatisfied with the outcome of a trial may bring an appeal to contest that outcome.
An adventure is defined as an exciting or unusual experience ; it may also be a bold, usually risky undertaking, with an uncertain outcome.
This outcome also makes a country more self-sufficient and politically independent, because food importation is reduced.
" Anxiety is also linked and perpetuated by the person's own pessimistic outcome expectancy and how they cope with feedback negativity
) There are also numerous instances where the killer is not brought to justice in the legal sense but instead dies ( death usually being presented as a more ' sympathetic ' outcome ), for example Death Comes as the End, And Then There Were None, Death on the Nile, Dumb Witness, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, Crooked House, Appointment with Death, The Hollow, Nemesis, Cat Among the Pigeons, and The Secret Adversary.
outcome and –
Next came a North Vietnamese attempt to overrun the entire country in March – April 1970, to which U. S. and South Vietnamese forces responded by a limited ground incursion at the end of April ... The outcome in Indochina was not foreordained.
It also has been used to argue that perhaps, Ceawlin did not win the battle and that the chronicler chose not to record the outcome fully – a king does not usually come home " in anger " after taking " many towns and countless war-loot ".
An additional outcome of the negotiations was the creation of the Hotline Agreement and the Moscow – Washington hotline, a direct communications link between Moscow and Washington, D. C.
A review of fourteen studies on the subject in sub-Saharan Africa, covering insecticide-treated nets, residual spraying, chemoprophylaxis for children, chemoprophylaxis or intermittent treatment for pregnant women, a hypothetical vaccine, and changing front – line drug treatment, found decision making limited by the gross lack of information on the costs and effects of many interventions, the very small number of cost-effectiveness analyses available, the lack of evidence on the costs and effects of packages of measures, and the problems in generalizing or comparing studies that relate to specific settings and use different methodologies and outcome measures.
The same major interests that Tewodros had — the security of Ethiopia's traditional borders and modernization — were once again foremost, as demonstrated by the outcome of the First Italo – Ethiopian War, Ethiopia's admission to the League of Nations ( 28 September 1923 ), and the 1935 Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Euler – MacLaurin summation formula can thus be seen to be an outcome of the representation of functions on the unit interval by the direct product of the Bernoulli polynomials and their duals.
They could allow the drivers to settle the outcome by racing each other – and risk one or both cars breaking down or crashing.
The successful outcome of the Polish – Soviet War gave Poland a false sense of being a major and self-sufficient military power, and the government a justification for trying to resolve international problems through imposed unilateral solutions.
One well-known qualitative technique employed in I – O psychology is John Flanagan's Critical Incident Technique, which requires " qualified observers " ( e. g., pilots in studies of aviation, construction workers in studies of construction projects ) to describe a work situation that resulted in a good or bad outcome.
The first Conclave of 1555, following the death of Julius III ( 1550 – 55 ), involved a struggle between French interests in Italy ( which had been favored by Julius III ) and Imperial interests, which were intent on Church reform through a Church council, but with the Emperor controlling the outcome.
After MLB's establishment of the three-division – Wild Card playoff format following the 1993 season, New York Times sports columnist Dave Anderson captured the feeling of many baseball purists regarding the thrilling ( and for Giants fans, heartbreaking ) winner-take-all outcome as the " last pure pennant race.
Most particle physicists state that the outcome of the ongoing experiments – the search for new particles at the large particle accelerators and for dark matter – are needed in order to provide theoretical physicists with further input for a ToE.
* July 14 – WWII: Winston Churchill, in a worldwide broadcast, proclaims the intention of Great Britain to fight alone against Germany whatever the outcome: " We shall seek no terms.
The 1983 – 85 famine in Ethiopia, for example, was the outcome of all these three factors, made worse by the Communist government's censorship of the emerging crisis.
The outcome is a large range and fullness of overtones – one of the characteristics of the " Steinway sound ".
The outcome hangs in the balance ; the Romans retreat to the Palatine Hill, where Romulus calls on Jupiter for help – traditionally at the place where a temple to Jupiter Stator (" the stayer ") was built.
The film's German director Roland Emmerich said " these were characters I could relate to, and they were engaged in a conflict that had a significant outcome – the creation of the first modern democratic government.
# Measurement of Uncertainty: A set of possible states or outcomes where probabilities are assigned to each possible state or outcome – this also includes the application of a probability density function to continuous variables
Under Kaldor – Hicks efficiency, an outcome is considered more efficient if a Pareto optimal outcome can be reached by arranging sufficient compensation from those that are made better off to those that are made worse off so that all would end up no worse off than before.
Using Kaldor – Hicks efficiency, an outcome is more efficient if those that are made better off could in theory compensate those that are made worse off, so that a Pareto improving outcome results.