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pectoral and girdle
Turtles, which are unable to move their ribs, instead use their forelimbs and pectoral girdle to force air in and out of the lungs.
This classification is based on such morphological features as the number of vertebrae, the structure of the pectoral girdle and the morphology of tadpoles.
The appendicular skeleton ( 126 bones ) is formed by the pectoral girdles ( 4 ), the upper limbs ( 60 ), the pelvic girdle ( 2 ), and the lower limbs ( 60 ).
It makes up part of the shoulder and the pectoral girdle and is palpable in all people, and, in people who have less fat in this region, the location of the bone is clearly visible as it creates a bulge in the skin.
Its counterpart in the pectoral girdle is the glenoid fossa.
Putting the animal in a horizontal posture makes many aspects of the arms and pectoral girdle more understandable.
Post cranial remains of amniotes can be identified from their Labyrinthodont ancestors by their having at least two pairs of sacral ribs, a sternum in the pectoral girdle ( some amniotes have lost it ) and an astragalus bone in the ankle.
* ( 2008 ): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei ( Teleostei ).
Like all modern tetrapods, it had rib bones, a mobile neck with a separate pectoral girdle, and lungs, though it had the gills, scales, and fins of a fish.
* ( 2008 ): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei ( Teleostei ).
* ( 2008 ): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei ( Teleostei ).
* ( 2008 ): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei ( Teleostei ).
The pectoral girdle of Eryops was highly developed, with a larger size for both increased muscle attachment to both it and the limbs.
* ( 2008 ): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei ( Teleostei ).
It had skull, pectoral girdle and forelimb material preserved, all of which were missing from the holotype.
The pectoral girdle is discussed by Chatterjee as being highly derived in Protoavis, displaying synapomorphies of Ornithothoraces, including the presence of a hypocleidium-bearing furcula, and a hypertrophied, carinate sternum.
The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle, composed of the clavicle and the scapula, connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton through the sternoclavicular joint ( the only joint in the upper limb that directly articulates with the trunk ), a ball and socket joint supported by the subclavius muscle which acts as a dynamic ligament.
* ( 2008 ): On the cephalic and pectoral girdle muscles of the deep sea fish Alepocephalus rostratus, with comments on the functional morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Alepocephaloidei ( Teleostei ).
Both the pectoral girdle and the ilium are large and strong.
The torso of Coelophysis conforms to the basic theropod body shape, but the pectoral girdle displays some interesting special characteristics: C. bauri had a furcula ( wishbone ), the earliest known example in a dinosaur.
X-ray films of starlings in flight have shown that in addition to strengthening the thorax, the furcula acts like a spring in the pectoral girdle during flight.
The forearm and pectoral girdle of H. floresiensis have been examined by Larson et al.

pectoral and is
The abbess also traditionally adds a pectoral cross to the outside of her habit as a symbol of office, though she continues to wear a modified form of her religious habit or dress, as she is unordained-not a male religious-and so does not vest or use choir dress in the liturgy.
The use of acellular human or animal dermal grafts have been described as an onlay patch to increase coverage of the implant when the pectoral muscle is released, which purports to improve both functional and aesthtic outcomes of implant-expander breast reconstruction.
A cardinal who is not a bishop is still entitled to wear and use the episcopal vestments and other pontificalia ( episcopal regalia: mitre, crozier, zucchetto, pectoral cross and ring ).
The pectoral fins are movable and used in maneuvering ; the dorsal fin is fixed and contributes stability, and the tail is used for propulsion, as well as maneuvering.
If a pectoral cross has been awarded it is usually worn with street clothes in the Russian tradition, but not so often in the Greek tradition.
* The West is rich in burial mounds of sand that the Wolof refer to as mbanaar, which translates to " graves ", A solid gold pectoral of mass 191 g has also been discovered near Saint-Louis.
The first sign is trismus, or lockjaw, and the facial spasms called risus sardonicus, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles.
The spiny first dorsal fin is normally folded back in a groove, as are its pectoral fins.
In the case of loose, trailing line, it is possible for the line to cut its way into the fleshy appendages of a manta as it swims, eventually resulting in irreversible injuries such as loss of cephalic fins and damage to pectoral fins, or even death if the wounds are severe enough.
When a male is courting a female, he will follow her closely, biting at her pectoral disc.
Additionally, the gel form is used in bandages and dressings, energy bracelets, breast implants, testicle implants, pectoral implants, contact lenses, and a variety of other medical uses.
Another notable anatomical adaptation among beaked whales is a slight depression in the body wall that allows them to hold their pectoral flippers tightly against their bodies for increased streamlining.
The species is divided into several subspecies, based primarily on colour differences, particularly of the pectoral band.
The dorsal fin is reduced to a tiny triangle, and the pectoral fins are longer than the head.
The pectoral musculature of the Kakapo is also modified by flightlessness.
The only gill opening is a vertical slit, directly above the pectoral fins.

pectoral and by
The abbot wears the same habit as his fellow monks, though by tradition he adds to it a pectoral cross.
It moves by combining pectoral, dorsal, anal, and caudal fins.
Because of this, they are slow-moving and rely on their pectoral, dorsal, anal, and caudal fins for propulsion rather than by body undulation.
Sharks are a group of fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
The early types resembled their cartilaginous forefathers in many aspects of their anatomy, including a shark-like tailfin, spiral gut, large pectoral fins stiffened in front by skeletal elements and a largely unossified axial skeleton.
The gill chamber was bound posteriorly by a stout cleithrum bone, also functioning as anchoring for the pectoral fins.
Gold and enamel pectoral by René Lalique, Museu Gulbenkian, Lisbon
Males inspect eggs to remove diseased or infertile eggs, and aerates the clutch by fanning them with its pectoral and pelvic fins.
For this reason, especially in the Russian Orthodox Church, the pectoral cross that the priest wears at all times will often have the Icon of Christ " Not Made by Hands " inscribed on it.
Without a true tail to provide thrust for forward motion and equipped with only small pectoral fins, Mola mola relies on its long, thin dorsal and anal fins for propulsion, driving itself forward by moving these fins from side to side.
The haddock is easily recognized by a black lateral line running along its white side ( not to be confused with pollock which has the reverse, i. e. white line on black side ) and a distinctive dark blotch above the pectoral fin, often described as a " thumbprint " or even the " Devil's thumbprint " or " St. Peter's mark ".
Poachers are notable for having elongated bodies covered by scales modified into bony plates, and for using their large pectoral fins to move in short bursts.
** A peculiar function of pectoral fins, highly developed in some fish, is the creation of the dynamic lifting force that assists some fish, such as sharks, in maintaining depth and also enables the " flight " for flying fish. Bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus showing finlets and keels. Drawing by Dr Tony Ayling
In the Roman Catholic tradition it is only worn by bishops, abbots, and certain canons who are granted the use of the pectoral cross by special indult.
It can be distinguished from other large requiem sharks by its relatively small first dorsal fin with a curving rear margin, its tiny second dorsal fin with a long free rear tip, and its long, sickle-shaped pectoral fins.
Asian arowanas are distinguished from Australian congenerics S. jardinii and S. leichardti by having fewer ( 21-26 ) lateral line scales ( versus 32-36 for the Australian species ), longer pectoral and pelvic fins, and a longer anterior snout.
The large metallic scales and double barbels are features shared by the Chinese dragon, and the large pectoral fins are said to make the fish resemble " a dragon in full flight.
They are distinguished from the closely related subfamily Gobiinae by the absence of a swimbladder in adults and location of the uppermost rays of the pectoral fins within the fin membrane.

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