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railroads and were
The U. S. Government Bonds, which constituted a lien upon the railroads and all their fixtures, were repaid in full ( and with interest ) by the company as and when they became due.
Canals, roads and railroads were constructed.
Cleveland saw the bill as unjust — Gould had taken over the railroads when they were failing and had made the system solvent again.
When the railroads through Sweden were built late in that century, Hultsfred received a population boost.
As railroads overtook canals for transportation, canal systems were modified and developed into hydropower systems ; the history of Lowell, Massachusetts is a classic example of commercial development and industrialization, built upon the availability of water power.
" Nearly all railroads were using Krupp rails, the New York Central, Illinois Central, Delaware and Hudson, Maine Central, Lake Shore and Michigin Southern, Bangor and Aarostook, Great Northern, Boston and Albany, Florida and East Coast, Texas and Pacific, Southern pacific, and Mexican National.
In 1995, the main means of transportation in Moldova were railroads () and a highway system ( overall, including of paved surfaces ).
In 1990 a total of 317 million tonkilometers of freight were carried on inland waterways as compared with 15, 007 million ton-kilometers on railroads and 1, 673 million ton-kilometers on roads.
As new areas were explored, it was usually the gold ( placer and then load ) and then silver that were taken first, with other metals often waiting for railroads or canals.
These reforms included guarantees to ensure the Ottoman subjects perfect security for their lives, honour, and property ; the introduction of the first Ottoman paper banknotes ( 1840 ) and opening of the first post offices ( 1840 ); the reorganization of the finance system according to the French model ( 1840 ); the reorganization of the Civil and Criminal Code according to the French model ( 1840 ); the establishment of the Meclis-i Maarif-i Umumiye ( 1841 ) which was the prototype of the First Ottoman Parliament ( 1876 ); the reorganization of the army and a regular method of recruiting, levying the army, and fixing the duration of military service ( 1843 – 44 ); the adoption of an Ottoman national anthem and Ottoman national flag ( 1844 ); the first nationwide Ottoman census in 1844 ( only male citizens were counted ); the first national identity cards ( officially named the Mecidiye identity papers, or informally kafa kağıdı ( head paper ) documents, 1844 ); the institution of a Council of Public Instruction ( 1845 ) and the Ministry of Education ( Mekatib-i Umumiye Nezareti, 1847, which later became the Maarif Nezareti, 1857 ); the abolition of slavery and slave trade ( 1847 ); the establishment of the first modern universities ( darülfünun, 1848 ), academies ( 1848 ) and teacher schools ( darülmuallimin, 1848 ); establishment of the Ministry of Healthcare ( Tıbbiye Nezareti, 1850 ); the Commerce and Trade Code ( 1850 ); establishment of the Academy of Sciences ( Encümen-i Daniş, 1851 ); establishment of the Şirket-i Hayriye which operated the first steam-powered commuter ferries ( 1851 ); the first European style courts ( Meclis-i Ahkam-ı Adliye, 1853 ) and supreme judiciary council ( Meclis-i Ali-yi Tanzimat, 1853 ); establishment of the modern Municipality of Istanbul ( Şehremaneti, 1854 ) and the City Planning Council ( İntizam-ı Şehir Komisyonu, 1855 ); the abolition of the capitation ( Jizya ) tax on non-Muslims, with a regular method of establishing and collecting taxes ( 1856 ); non-Muslims were allowed to become soldiers ( 1856 ); various provisions for the better administration of the public service and advancement of commerce ; the establishment of the first telegraph networks ( 1847 – 1855 ) and railroads ( 1856 ); the replacement of guilds with factories ; the establishment of the Ottoman Central Bank ( originally established as the Bank-ı Osmanî in 1856, and later reorganized as the Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane in 1863 ) and the Ottoman Stock Exchange ( Dersaadet Tahvilat Borsası, established in 1866 ); the Land Code ( Arazi Kanunnamesi, 1857 ); permission for private sector publishers and printing firms with the Serbesti-i Kürşad Nizamnamesi ( 1857 ); establishment of the School of Economical and Political Sciences ( Mekteb-i Mülkiye, 1859 ); the Press and Journalism Regulation Code ( Matbuat Nizamnamesi, 1864 ); among others.
By the 1850s, it was noticed that the numbers of birds seemed to be decreasing, but still the slaughter continued, accelerating to an even greater level as more railroads were developed after the American Civil War.
The railroads were also a profitable government operation, and road competition was not viewed as desirable.
In addition, while road-traveling vehicles are typically measured from the outermost portions of the wheel rims ( and there is some evidence that the first railroads were measured in this way as well ), it became apparent that for vehicles travelling on rails, it was better to have the wheel flanges located inside the rails, and thus the distance measured on the inside of the wheels ( and, by extension, the inside faces of the rail heads ) was the important one.
Before the CPRR was completed, developers were building other railroads in Nevada and California to connect to it.
Talk of a transcontinental railroad started in 1830, shortly after steam powered railroads were invented in Great Britain and began to be introduced into the United States.
Durant manipulated market prices on his stocks by spreading rumours about which railroads were to be connected to the Union Pacific.
Because of the nature of the way money was given to the companies building the railroad, they were sometimes known to sabotage each others railroads to claim that land as their own.
The integration of traditional economies in the Congo within the framework of the modern, capitalist economy was brilliantly executed ; for example, several railroads were built through dense regions of jungle.
Under the French, a port was constructed at Cotonou, and railroads were built.
Hundreds more were abandoned when the US Highway System replaced the railroads as the United States ' favorite mode of travel.
These scenic areas were first described for the public in magazine articles published by Union Pacific and Santa Fe railroads in 1916.
There were other possible migration paths for early settlers, miners, or travelers to California or Oregon besides the Oregon trail prior to the establishment of the transcontinental railroads.

railroads and first
The first, or double-step, type might also be called the `` railroad type '' because of its application to railroads ( and other transportation agencies ) by the Cost Section of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Following the War of the Thousand Days ( 1899 – 1902 ), Colombia experienced a coffee boom that catapulted the country into the modern period, bringing the attendant benefits of transportation, particularly railroads, communications infrastructure, and the first major attempts at manufacturing.
Taft's administration got a political boost after 25 western railroads announced an intent to raise rates by 20 %, and Taft responded, first with a threat to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act against them ; he then negotiated a settlement whereby they agreed to submit delayed rate requests to a new Interstate Commerce Commission having authority over rate requests.
On the home front in 1917, he began the United States ' first draft since the American Civil War, borrowed billions of dollars in war funding through the newly established Federal Reserve Bank and Liberty Bonds, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union cooperation, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, took over control of the railroads, and suppressed anti-war movements.
* March 20 – The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Denver & Rio Grande Western, and Western Pacific railroads inaugurate the California Zephyr passenger train between Chicago and Oakland, California, as the first long distance train to feature Vista Dome cars as regular equipment.
Pell first used the property as a summer retreat, but the completion of railroads and canals connecting the area to New York City brought tourists to the area, so he converted his summer house, known as The Pavilion, into a hotel to serve the tourist trade.
New York City soon surpassed Philadelphia in population but, with the construction of roads, canals, and railroads, Philadelphia became the first major industrial city in the United States.
The Great Northern was the first transcontinental built without public money and just a few land grants and was one of the few transcontinental railroads not to go bankrupt.
Richmond emerged from the smoldering rubble of the Civil War as an economic powerhouse, with iron front buildings and massive brick factories. Canal traffic peaked in the 1860s and slowly gave way to railroads, allowing Richmond to become a major railroad crossroads, eventually including the site of the world's first triple railroad crossing.
Scholars consider the Hepburn Act the most important piece of legislation regarding railroads in the first half of the 20th century.
* significantly reduced federal regulation of railroads for the first time since passage of the 1887 Interstate Commerce Act.
During the mid-19th century the region got its first railroads, and the railroad junction in Chicago grew to be the world's largest.
At first, mail for Chokoloskee came by boat from Key West, then as the railroads extended down the Florida peninsula, the mail came from Punta Gorda, and later from Fort Myers.

railroads and big
By 1876, twenty ( 20 ) or more coal banks could be counted and with the coming of the railroads, mining became a big business.
Straight ahead lay the distant lights of El Paso and Juarez, sown in a tremendous valley so big that you could see several railroads puffing at the same time in every direction, as though it was the Valley of the World.
This was later revealed to be caused by collusion by the leaders of the big railroads, notably Alexander Cassatt, William Kissam Vanderbilt, and Frederick J. Kimball, who sought to control shipping rates and coal prices, and prevent any newcomers from entry.
As construction on the Deepwater Railway continued, William Page's continued efforts to establish reasonable joint rates with the big railroads continued to prove fruitless.
To the puzzlement of the leaders of the big railroads, who were unaware of Rogers ' financial backing, Page ( and Rogers ) did not give up.
By the time the leaders of the big railroads finally realized that the Deepwater and Tidewater railroads were related, the rights-of-way were secure, and the new competitor could not be blocked.
Thus, the leaders of the big railroads finally learned the source of William Nelson Page's deep pockets.
His speeches decrying the sway of big business ( especially the railroads ) and his call for a more direct democracy ( including direct election of nominees in party primaries ) drew ever larger crowds.
The issue greatly assisted Domenici at home, where the railroad industry was big ( railroads competed with barges, and they long wanted to end the " free ride " issue.
In the United States, several big eastern railroads used them, primarily the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroad.
Despite efforts to stop them, they then built the " Mountains to Sea " railroad right under the noses of the big railroads and the elite group of a few industrialists ( so-called " robber barons ") who controlled them.
The story of the building of the Virginian Railway has been described as a textbook example of natural resources and railroads, and of a smaller company taking on big business ( and winning ) early in the 20th century.
Together, they had conceived and built a modern, well-engineered rail pathway from the coal mines of West Virginia to port at Hampton Roads right under the noses of the big railroads.
His message resonated with the grievances of small farmers against the exploitative big interests: the Minneapolis grain merchants, the railroads, and the eastern banks.
At first his speeches focused on uniting the poor and the working class while attacking the greed of big business, especially the railroads.
Instead, he stubbornly continued building his Deepwater Railroad, to the increasing puzzlement of the two big railroads.
Rogers wasn't about to have the investment foiled by the big railroads.
The story of the building of the Virginian Railway has been described as a textbook example of natural resources, railroads, and a smaller company taking on big business ( and winning ) early in the 20th century.
While Page continued to meet with the big railroads for rate negotiations that always seemed unproductive, he and Rogers secretly planned a route and acquired rights-of-way all of the way across Virginia to Hampton Roads, a distance of some.
Although it lasted less than a year and never shipped any oil, the South Improvement Company scheme caused widespread attention to be focused on the relationships between big railroads and big businesses which wanted and demanded favorable treatment.
Calgary Herald cartoon satirizing Premier Arthur Sifton's promised railroads. The big Issues of the election centred around the Sifton's government lack of infrastructure building in Southern Alberta.
After facing a refusal of the big railroads ( who had their own coal lands ) to negotiate equitable rates to interchange and forward the coal for shipping, the owners and their investors expanded their scheme and built a U. S. Class I railroad which extended from some of the most rugged terrain of West Virginia over to reach port at Hampton Roads near Norfolk, Virginia.

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