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The species that gains the electron pair is the Lewis acid ; for example, the oxygen atom in H < sub > 3 </ sub > O < sup >+</ sup > gains a pair of electrons when one of the H — O bonds is broken and the electrons shared in the bond become localized on oxygen.
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species and gains
Applied and economic ornithology aim to reduce the ill effects of problem birds and enhance gains from beneficial species.
The main conflict of the book is overcoming the differences between species, and the differences in longevity, by his love she gains immortality.
One interesting aspect of the bird is that contrary to most species, this bird gains telomere growth as they grow older.
In this alternate, futuristic universe, men and women ( at least on Taraak and Mejere ) consider each other to be completely separate species ( Hibiki gains the nickname " Mr. Alien " from Dita Liebely, the female protagonist ), and the three men put up with much abuse at the hands of their female captors, but gradually make their presence accepted: Hibiki as a mecha fighter and technician, Duelo as a skilled doctor and engineer, and Bart as the ship's helmsman and navigator.
By parasitizing the honest warning signal of the protected species, the Batesian mimic gains the same advantage, without having to go to the expense of arming themselves.
A patron species gains considerable status, and patrons and clients often unite into powerful clans.
Alloimmunity is a condition in which the body gains immunity against antigens of another individual of the same species, which are perceived as foreign.
species and electron
A Lewis acid is a species that accepts a pair of electrons from another species ; in other words, it is an electron pair acceptor.
Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor ( a metal or a semiconductor ) and an ionic conductor ( the electrolyte ), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution.
In a more general definition, an acid can be any chemical species capable of binding to electron pairs is called a Lewis acid ; conversely any molecule that tends to donate an electron pair is referred to as a Lewis base.
Geophysically, the state of the ionospheric plasma may be described by four parameters: electron density, electron and ion temperature and, since several species of ions are present, ionic composition.
Singlet oxygen is a name given to several higher-energy species of molecular in which all the electron spins are paired.
Two water molecules are oxidized by four successive charge-separation reactions by photosystem II to yield a molecule of diatomic oxygen and four hydrogen ions ; the electron yielded in each step is transferred to a redox-active tyrosine residue that then reduces the photoxidized paired-chlorophyll a species called P680 that serves as the primary ( light-driven ) electron donor in the photosystem II reaction center.
In contemporary usage, the term radical refers to free radicals that are ( not necessarily charged ) species with an unpaired electron.
** Reducing agent, element or compound in a redox reaction that donates an electron to another species
Auger electron energies can be calculated based on measured values of the various and compared to peaks in the secondary electron spectrum in order to identify chemical species.
In electrochemistry, the electrochemical potential of an electron ( or any other species ) is by definition constant across a device in equilibrium, while the chemical potential is equal to the electrochemical potential minus the local electric potential energy of the electron.
Thus, wavelength ratios observed for different ionic species in the absorption spectra of quasi stellar objects ( QSO or quasars ) place a limit on any variation in the fine-structure constant to less than 1 part in 1 million out to a distance in space ( and time ) of z = 3 ( about 6500 megaparsecs or 11. 5 billion light years ); as the fine-structure constant is determined by the relation between the speed of light ( c ), Planck's constant ( h ) and the electron charge ( e ), these physical constants are constrained as well.
A reducing agent ( also called a reductant or reducer ) is the element or compound in a reduction-oxidation ( redox ) reaction that donates an electron to another species ; however, since the reducer loses an electron we say it is " oxidized ".
This species is, effectively, a free radical, and is very reactive and allows an electron to be transferred to acceptors which are adjacent to the chlorophyll in the chloroplast.
Under other conditions, the collision of the positive species with the curved electrode can also cause electron liberation.
This has allowed researchers using electron microscopy to map the paths and connections of all of the approximately 300 neurons in this species.
The reduced species are oxidized by a series of respiratory integral membrane proteins with sequentially increasing reduction potentials with the final electron acceptor being oxygen ( in aerobic respiration ) or another species ( in anaerobic respiration ).
species and pair
Bees all have two pairs of wings, the hind pair being the smaller of the two ; in a very few species, one sex or caste has relatively short wings that make flight difficult or impossible, but none are wingless.
The ancestor may be an individual, a breeding pair, a population or even a species ( extinct or extant ).
The so-called Brassica triangle is an example of allopolyploidy, where three different parent species have hybridized in all possible pair combinations to produce three new species.
Naturalist Paul R. Ehrlich wrote that the Passenger Pigeon's extinction " illustrates a very important principle of conservation biology: it is not always necessary to kill the last pair of a species to force it to extinction.
As with the larvae, the pupae of most species must come to the surface frequently to breathe, which they do through a pair of respiratory trumpets on the cephalothorax.
* Pair bond, in biology, the strong affinity that develops in some species between the male and female in a breeding pair, or, sometimes, between individuals of the same sex
Each segment bears a pair of paddle-like and highly vascularized parapodia, which are used for movement and, in many species, act as the worm's primary respiratory surfaces.
In sexually reproducing species, it is applicable mostly to situations where ecological pressures prevent most competitors from reaching maturity, or where crowding or pair-bonding or an extreme suppression of sexual selection factors prevents the normal sexual competition rituals and selection from taking place, but which also prevent artificial selection from operating, e. g. arranged marriages, where parents rather than the young select the mate based on economic or even astrological factors, and where the sexual desires of the mated pair are often subordinated to these factors, are artificial unless wholly based on an ecological factor such as control of land which is held by their own force.
In general, ecological selection is assumed to be the dominant process in natural selection, except in highly cognitive species that do not, or do not always, pair bond, e. g. walrus, gorilla, human.
In some narrow-leaved species, for example E. oleosa, the seedling leaves after the second leaf pair are often clustered in a detectable spiral arrangement about a five-sided stem.