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The stab-in-the-back myth ( German: )< ref > Despite the similarity of the German word Legende and the English word " legend ", " stab-in-the-back < u > myth </ u >" is the preferred term in English .</ ref > is the notion, widely believed in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy.
Some Related Sentences
stab-in-the-back and myth
Like many other German nationalists, Hitler believed in the stab-in-the-back myth, which claimed that the army, " undefeated in the field ," had been " stabbed in the back " by civilian leaders and Marxists back on the home front, later dubbed the November Criminals.
stab-in-the-back and German
The theme of stab-in-the-back was articulated in 1919 most prominently by General Erich Ludendorff, one of the two top German commanders.
After the war, Ludendorff became a prominent nationalist leader, and a promoter of the stab-in-the-back legend, convinced that the German Army had been betrayed by Marxists and Republicans in the Versailles Treaty.
In exile, he wrote numerous books and articles about the German military's conduct of the war while forming the foundation for the Dolchstoßlegende, the stab-in-the-back theory, for which he is considered largely responsible.
A fierce critic of the German Revolution and the Weimar Republic, he vehemently opposed the Treaty of Versailles, which he viewed as treason, and was a proponent of the so-called stab-in-the-back legend ( Dolchstoßlegende ), according to which the Social Democrats and Jews were to blame for Germany's defeat in the war.
The considerations behind this recommendation were to prevent the repetition of the stab-in-the-back legend, created in Germany following defeat in the First World War, since the act of surrender in November 1918 was signed by representatives of the German government and the militarist circles later claimed that the High Command was not responsible for that defeat.
stab-in-the-back and legend
Richard Steigmann-Gall says that the stab-in-the-back legend traces back to a sermon preached on February 3, 1918, by Protestant Court Chaplain Bruno Doehring, six months before the war had even ended.
Others, angry at their sudden, apparently inexplicable defeat, joined up in an effort to put down Communist uprisings or exact some form of revenge ( see stab-in-the-back legend ).
The Nazis, under Adolf Hitler, promoted the nationalist stab-in-the-back legend stating that Germany had been betrayed by Jews and Communists.
Using the " stab-in-the-back legend ", they blamed poverty, the Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, unemployment, and the loss of World War I by the " November Criminals " all on the Jews, Marxists and ' cultural Bolsheviks '.
The Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, blamed Germany's ruined economy on the harshness of the Versailles Treaty, on faults of democracy, and on the stab-in-the-back legend.
Due to the inability of the new government to provide basic services as a result of the Treaty of Versailles as well as the antisemitic stab-in-the-back legend originating in Austria, Eisner's Independent Social Democrats were defeated in the January 1919 election by the Bavarian People's Party.
On 10 November, conservative journalist Paul Baecker wrote an article in Deutsche Tageszeitung which already contained essential elements of the stab-in-the-back legend:
They also had to contend with the Dolchstoßlegende (" stab-in-the-back legend ") of the end of the war.
stab-in-the-back and is
The contemporary concept of Russophobia has wide circulation in right-wing anti-democratic reform circles within Russia and was used to construct stab-in-the-back myths about the fall of the Soviet Union and is seen as the rallying point of xenophobes and defenders of autocracy.
stab-in-the-back and term
The official birth of the term " stab-in-the-back " itself possibly can be dated to the autumn of 1919, when Ludendorff was dining with the head of the British Military Mission in Berlin, British general Sir Neill Malcolm.
stab-in-the-back and Germany
Unaware of Hindenburg's direct testimony of Germany's military defeat, Germans adopted the Dolchstoss or " stab-in-the-back " theory that Germany had only lost the war because it was betrayed at home by " the socialists, the Communists and the Jews ," which served as Nazism's explanation for Germany's defeat.
stab-in-the-back and was
In spite of such tolerance, the Republic's legitimacy was constantly attacked with claims such as the stab-in-the-back.
The Allied policy of unconditional surrender was devised in 1943 in part to avoid a repetition of the stab-in-the-back theme.
stab-in-the-back and by
myth and German
Many academic historians hold the idea that the German armed forces adopted " blitzkrieg " as an offensive doctrine to be a myth.
In his book the Blitzkrieg Legend, German historian Karl-Heinz Frieser also shares Adam Tooze ' ( in his work The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy ), Overy's and Naveh's concerns over the myth of the blitzkrieg economic and strategy.
Sociological historian Holger Herwig found in studying German explanations for the origins of World War I, " Those events that are most important are hardest to understand, because they attract the greatest attention from myth makers and charlatans.
A popular myth is that Polish cavalry armed with lances charged German tanks during the September 1939 campaign.
To support the intended process of nation building even further, a vague myth of some common Germanic original language developed, and German dialectology began to name dialect groups after presumed and real groups of historic tribes having existed from BC to about 600 AD, from which they were assumed to have descended.
Throughout the 19th century, these anti-Napoleonic Freikorps were greatly praised and glorified by German nationalists, and a heroic myth built up around their exploits.
Besides a direct quote there exist many variations starting " Ich bin ein (+ noun, e. g., Frankfurter )" that is supposed to be understood by the primarily English-speaking audience based on the widespread knowledge of this German phrase and its myth.
" In the bonus material on the DVD, screenwriter Nicholas Meyer and actor William Shatner both explain that this was an allusion to the German myth that Shakespeare was in fact German.
This myth proved to be a weapon against the Weimar Republic, and exercised a destructive influence on the political culture of the first German democracy.
Operation Barbarossa was named after Frederick Barbarossa, the medieval German ruler who, as myth had it, would rescue Germany in her time of need.
After being recruited by the German government to fill the labor shortages in specific industries, Turkish migrants relocated to German cities such as Berlin and Frankfurt under the ‘ myth of return ’.
Although such a charge did not happen and there were no tanks used during the combat, the myth was used by German propaganda during the war.
This myth, originating in German propaganda, stated Wittmann had fallen in combat to the " dreaded fighter-bombers ".
The following is a quote from one of his speeches: Since the great days of the magnificent German victories of the years 1870-71, we have become increasingly conscious of our German identity and now thumb more ardently through the books of German myth, legends and history.
myth and ref
Cu Roi and Murgen do not survive the destruction of the Tain, thus leaving only three survivors out of the Nine < ref > http :// myth. bungie. org / legends / journal / j1-17_sons_myrgard. html Myth. Bungie. Org | Legends & Lore | The Journals | Myth I-Sons of Myrgard
This notation was in compliance with the list of trademarked character names supplied by Lucasfilm's legal department .< ref > Later references to the error would forget its origin and slowly morph into the urban myth.
< http :// www. jstor. org / stable / 441074 >.</ ref > On the other hand, magic realism encompasses the terms " myth / legend ," " fantastic / supplementation ," " defamiliarization ," " mysticism / magic ," " meta-narration ," " open-ended / expansive romanticism ," and " imagination / negative capability.
In an interview in SPORT nearly three decades later, Jackson contended that this story was a myth .< ref >
Turning away from the Enlightenment conception of Greek myth as a reflection of a universal religion in its infancy, Müller placed the study squarely as the outcome of an encounter between the particular character of a people and a specific historical setting, where, in the broadest sense it has remained, though his convictions that the core of each culture is uniquely its own led him to deny the influence of Egyptian art on Greek art ,< ref > In his article “ On the alleged Egyptian origin of Greek art ” (“ Ueber
Take notice of the orbit condition number ( the lower the number, the lower the orbit's uncertainty ).</ ref > For this reason, it was named after the Greek myth of Phaëton, son of the sun god Helios.
" Some archeologists and biblical scholars have suggested that the Biblical account of the conquest of Ai derives from an etiological myth-a type of tale which " explains the origin of a custom, state of affairs, or natural feature in the human or divine world ."< ref >" myth.
< http :// www. britannica. com / EBchecked / topic / 400920 / myth >.</ ref > Ancient folk lore contained tales of impressive ruins as well as vague details of their destruction.
The abundance of the Arum Lily ( Zantedeschia aethiopica ) in the area and the marketing by the developers contributed to the myth about the Gosnell company, being so successful that the Gosnells railway station was constructed on the Armadale line in 1903 .< ref >, 1867 the arrival of perfumes Direct from John Gosnells & Co., Perfumers to Her Majesty ( Queen Victoria ), was noted in the business section of the New Zealand newspaper North Otago Times
The myth of the aswang is well known throughout the Philippines, except in the Ilocos region, which is the only region that does not have an equivalent myth .< ref >
By some academic definitions, a traditional story about a historical human character like Muhammad would be a " legend ", not a " myth ".< ref > For some examples of this distinction between " legend " and " myth ", see < http :// falcon. jmu. edu /~ ramseyil / tradmays. htm > and ( for the classic distinction drawn by professional folklorists ) < http :// encarta. msn. com / text_761556135__1 / Folktales. html >.</ ref >
In his recounting of the myth of the war between Minos and Aegeus, the king of Athens, the poet Ovid speaks of Gyaros as one island that refused to join the campaign of the Cretan king .< ref >