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voltage and pulse
A pulsed high voltage source ( typically 1-2 kV ) is generated and applied to the specimen, with pulse repetition rates in the hundreds of kilohertz range.
Ideally, the active element would pass only an instantaneous current pulse while the voltage across it is zero: it then disspates no power and 100 % efficiency is achieved.
These are methods to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog baseband channel ( a. k. a. lowpass channel ) using a pulse train, i. e. a discrete number of signal levels, by directly modulating the voltage or current on a cable.
The magnetron is operated with very short pulses of applied voltage, resulting in a short pulse of high power microwave energy being radiated.
If the voltage changes by a large enough amount, an all-or-none electrochemical pulse called an action potential is generated, which travels rapidly along the cell's axon, and activates synaptic connections with other cells when it arrives.
Each time a dot is created or erased, the change in electrical charge induces a voltage pulse in the pickup plate.
Since the computer knows which location on the screen is being targeted at that instant, it can use the voltage pulse from the plate to read the data stored on the screen.
In telecommunication, pulse amplitude is the magnitude of a pulse parameter, such as the voltage level, current level, field intensity, or power level.
It is generally accepted that for a given pulse duration and shape, a specific transmembrane voltage threshold exists for the manifestation of the electroporation phenomenon ( from 0. 5 V to 1 V ).
Multiple layers of thin dielectric films are used where maximum practical dielectric strength is required, such as high voltage capacitors and pulse transformers.
Conducted voltage and current susceptibility testing typically involves a high-powered signal or pulse generator, and a current clamp or other type of transformer to inject the test signal.
Examples of ternary signals are ( a ) a pulse that can have a positive, zero, or negative voltage value at any given instant ( PAM-3 ), ( b ) a sine wave that can assume phases of 0 °, 120 °, or 240 ° relative to a clock pulse ( 3-PSK ), and ( c ) a carrier wave that can assume any one of three different frequencies depending on three different modulation signal significant conditions ( 3-FM ).
When the rising edge of the pulse is launched down the cable, the voltage at the launching point " steps up " to a given value instantly and the pulse begins propagating down the cable towards the short.
For a voltage pulse, starting at and moving in the positive-direction, then the transmitted pulse at position can be obtained by computing the Fourier Transform,, of, attenuating each frequency component by, advancing its phase by, and taking the inverse Fourier Transform.
TTL systems usually have a decoupling capacitor for every one or two IC packages, so that a current pulse from one chip does not momentarily reduce the supply voltage to the others.
When a voltage is applied, the piezoelectric material changes shape, which generates a pressure pulse in the fluid forcing a droplet of ink from the nozzle.
Panasonic's handbook, however, recommends that NiMH batteries on standby are kept charged by a lower duty cycle approach, where a pulse of a higher current is used whenever the battery's voltage drops below This can extend battery life and use less energy.
When an X-ray photon passes through, it causes a swarm of electron-hole pairs to form, and this causes a voltage pulse.
The amplitude of each pulse constitutes the open circuit voltage.
Thus, the maximum duration of discharge is equal to the duration of a pulse of voltage in the train.
This change, after a delay, induces a voltage pulse into the Sense line.

voltage and produced
For example, in sound recording, fluctuations in air pressure ( that is to say, sound ) strike the diaphragm of a microphone which induces corresponding fluctuations in the current produced by a coil in an electromagnetic microphone, or the voltage produced by a condensor microphone.
Many automotive Hall effect sensors have a built-in internal NPN transistor with an open collector and grounded emitter, meaning that rather than a voltage being produced at the Hall sensor signal output wire, the transistor is turned on providing a circuit to ground through the signal output wire.
The principle behind cold cathode version is the same, except that electrons are produced in the discharge of a high voltage.
Early analog synthesizers were usually monophonic ( capable of playing only one note at a time ), and controlled via a voltage produced by their keyboards.
* Coil protection – suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil current
The conductivity is varied by the electric field that is produced when a voltage is applied between the gate and source terminals ; hence the current flowing between the drain and source is controlled by the voltage applied between the gate and source.
The voltage produced is dependent on, but not necessarily proportional to, the difference of temperature of the junction to other parts of those conductors.
At the power stations the energy is produced at a relatively low voltage between about 2. 3 kV and 30 kV, depending on the size of the unit.
The alternating current signal produced by the flow of this charge is amplified and used as an analogue for the DC voltage applied to the capacitor.
* If the high and low signal levels have the same voltage with opposite polarity, coded signals have zero average DC voltage, thus reducing the necessary transmitting power and minimizing the amount of electromagnetic noise produced by the transmission line.
Electromagnetic noise is produced in the source due to rapid current and voltage changes, and spread via the coupling mechanisms described earlier.
The voltage and frequency of the power produced by a generator depends on the rotational speed.
Some forms of DC ( such as that produced by a voltage regulator ) have almost no variations in voltage, but may still have variations in output power and current.
If otherwise, it indicates that the voltage isn't increasing linearly, and therefore that the magnetic field produced by the deflection yoke is not linear.
It has been proposed therefore to heat such materials simultaneously throughout their mass by means of the dielectric loss produced in them when they are subjected to a high voltage, high frequency field.
Depending upon the type of end-use, this type of DC current may then be further modified into the type of relatively constant voltage DC characteristically produced by such sources as batteries and solar cells.
Alternatively ( and some would say properly, in the context of electrocardiography ), the word lead may refer to the tracing of the voltage difference between two of the electrodes and is what is actually produced by the ECG recorder.
Inter-operation with RS-232 devices may be impossible as the serial port cannot withstand the voltage levels produced and may have other differences that " lock in " the user to products of a particular manufacturer.
It produced a small DC voltage.
The voltage produced is proportional to the temperature difference between the two junctions.
The voltage difference, V, produced across the terminals of an open circuit made from a pair of dissimilar metals, A and B, whose two junctions are held at different temperatures, is directly proportional to the difference between the hot and cold junction temperatures, T < sub > h </ sub > − T < sub > c </ sub >.

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