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This Frankish unity or the memory of it seems to have lasted well into the period when their range was linguistically divided between High and Low German.
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Frankish and unity
In the Frankish realm the unity of the kingdom was essentially connected with the person of the king.
Frankish socio-political unity began with a confederation of tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, whom the Romans called ' Franci ', and possibly ended with the Treaty of Verdun in 843.
Over around a thousand years of socio-political unity, with the exception of the first few centuries, no common Frankish language existed.
Frankish and memory
In the 9th century, during the great movement termed the Carolingian Renaissance, these Annals became the usual form of contemporary history ; it suffices to mention the Royal Frankish Annals, the Annales Fuldenses, the Annales Bertiniani, the Annales Laureshamenses ( or " of Lorsch "), officially compiled in order to preserve the memory of the more interesting acts of Charlemagne, his ancestors and his successors.
Frankish and seems
Yitzhak Hen stated that it seems certain that the Gallo-Roman population was far greater than the Frankish population in Merovingian Gaul, especially in regions south of the Seine, with most of the Frankish settlements being located along the Lower and Middle Rhine.
Methodius seems to have disregarded, wholly or in part, the prohibition of the Slavonic liturgy ; and when Frankish clerics again found their way into the country, and the archbishop's strictness had displeased the licentious Svatopluk, this was made a cause of complaint against him at Rome, coupled with charges regarding the Filioque.
He was succeeded by his younger brother Otto the Illustrious ( d. 912 ), mentioned as dux in the contemporary annals of Hersfeld Abbey, which however seems to have been denied by the Frankish rulers.
While his reasons for leading a military expedition south remain unclear, it seems that he wanted to seal his newly secured grip on Burgundy, now threatened by Umayyad occupation of several cities lying in the lower Rhone, or maybe it provided the excuse he needed to intervene in this territory ruled by Gothic and Roman law, far off from the Frankish centre in the north of Gaul.
In 820, he seems to have abandoned his Frankish benefactors and allied with the Basques to fight the Banu Qasi of the Ebro valley.
It seems that he was in favour of the Franks, but, as there was a Muslim garrison in Narbonne, he didn't follow Ansemund, Count of Nimes in his allegiance to the Frankish Kingdom.
Rastislav seems to have already been Christian when he became duke, but there is no doubt that he was baptized at the latest in 846 as part of the conditions for his support by the East Frankish king.
Frankish and have
Bad Ems is in Rhineland-Palatinate, on the northwestern boundary of Alemannic settlement, where Frankish influence would have been strongest.
Æthelberht ’ s wife was a Christian and brought a Frankish bishop with her, to attend her at court, so Æthelberht would have had knowledge of Christianity before the mission reached Kent.
The vacuum left may have been resettled then by some Frankish nobles with some more or less numerous retainers from their original core area.
Both arose under the reign of the Frankish emperor Charlemagne, from which the knighthood of the Middle Ages can be seen to have had its genesis.
This act of contrition, partly in emulation of Theodosius I, had the effect of greatly reducing his prestige as a Frankish ruler, for he also recited a list of minor offences about which no secular ruler of the time would have taken any notice.
The historian N. J. Higham speculates that one reason for his attendance may have been to assert the English Church's independence from the Frankish Church.
However, others of late have come to favour a different hypothesis: that the Frankish Kingdom comprised several regna ( loosely translated as kingdoms ) that since ancient times had maintained different customs and dialects.
However the Carolingian Renaissance is said to have occurred during the reign of the Frankish king Charlemagne.
Although the embassy did not achieve its stated objective, it did have the effect of removing the support of the Frankish bishops who had been backing Hugh and Herbert.
Finally, Stephen ’ s intervention on behalf of the Frankish king Louis IV ( who was in conflict with Otto ) would not have occurred had Stephen been a relative of the German king, and had Stephen received the papal throne through Otto ’ s intervention.
The plan was an ideal of what a well-designed and well-supplied monastery should have, as envisioned by one of the synods held at Aachen for the reform of monasticism in the Frankish empire during the early years of emperor Louis the Pious ( between 814 and 817 ).
Although another cause could well have been pressure caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia and their subsequent attacks upon the Viking peoples.
Taken literally, such usage would suggest a strong affinity of early Frankish rulers for the prestige of Roman culture, which they may have embraced as allies and federates of the Empire during the previous century.
Seguin ( Sihiminus ), count of Bordeaux and Duke of Vasconia, seemed to have attempted a detachment from the Frankish central authority on Charlemagne's death.
According to Muslim accounts of the battle, in the midst of the fighting on the second day ( Frankish accounts have the battle lasting one day only ), scouts from the Franks sent by Charles began to raid the camp and supply train ( including slaves and other plunder ).
The marriage to a Frankish princess who had her own royal lineage could have produced heirs more throne-worthy than Æthelbald.
( Life of the Fathers, XVII, 1 ) He surmounts the others in the glory of his miracles, and was chosen by God to have the entire succession of past and future Frankish kings revealed to him.
Some researchers have noted that Merovech, the Frankish chieftain, may have been the namesake of a certain god or demigod honored by the Franks prior to their conversion to Christianity.
A History of Frankish Greece ( 1204 – 1566 )" ( 1908 ) by William Miller, the seven brothers may also have had a sister.
The army, and its Frankish general Merobaudes, may have been uneasy about Gratian's lack of military ability, and so raised a boy who would not immediately aspire to military command.
For " mainstream " history, the Frankish and later the Habsburg empire, the Alps had strategic importance as an obstacle, not as a landscape, and the Alpine passes have consequently had great significance militarily.
In sources beginning with the Royal Frankish Annals, the Merovingian kings of the Franks traditionally traced their lineage through a pre-Frankish tribe called the Sicambri ( or Sugambri ), mythologized as a group of " Cimmerians " from the mouth of the Danube river, but who instead came from Gelderland in modern Netherlands and are named for the Sieg river or which could derive from that of the Cimbri as their chieftain names have the same suffix-rix.
In 820, Íñigo is said to have intervened in the County of Aragon, ejecting a Frankish vassal, count Aznar I Galíndez, in favor of García el Malo ( the Bad ), who would become Íñigo's son-in-law.
Frankish and lasted
The civil war lasted ten years and was ended only by a peace treaty imposed by the Emperor Louis II, the only Frankish king to exercise actual sovereignty over the Lombard states, in 849, which divided the kingdom into two states: the Principality of Benevento and the Principality of Salerno, with its capital at Salerno on the Tyrrhenian.
This kingdom lasted only until 869 .</ li >< li > East Francia or the East Frankish Kingdom: Louis the German, King of the East Franks .</ li >
The Empire lasted from 800 to 843, when, following Frankish tradition, it was split between the sons of Louis the Pious by the Treaty of Verdun.
In consequence the Kingdom of East Francia would have lasted from 843 to the coronation of Duke Henry I of Saxony in 919 ; though more commonly, the Holy Roman Empire is thought to begin with the Coronation of Emperor Otto I in Rome on February 2, 962 as a translatio imperii from the Frankish Empire.