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Page "Democracy in America" ¶ 18
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Tocqueville and considered
The theme of a religious basis of economic discipline is echoed in sociologist Max Weber's work, but both de Tocqueville and Weber argued that this discipline was not a force of economic determinism, but one factor among many that should be considered when evaluating the relative economic success of the Puritans.
Thus, Marc Antoine Baudott considered that French temperament inclined rather to equality than liberty, a theme which would be re-used by Pierre Louis Roederer and Alexis de Tocqueville, while Jacques Necker considered that an equal society could only be found on coercion.

Tocqueville and women
Tocqueville was one of the first social critics to examine the situation of American women and to identify the concept of Separate Spheres.

Tocqueville and men
Tocqueville traced the development of equality to a number of factors, such as granting all men permission to enter the clergy, widespread economic opportunity resulting from the growth of trade and commerce, the royal sale of titles of nobility as a monarchical fundraising tool, and the abolition of primogeniture.
Although not a notable traveller, Acton spent much time in the chief intellectual centres of Europe and in the United States and numbered among his friends such men as Montalembert, Tocqueville, Fustel de Coulanges, Bluntschli, von Sybel and Ranke.

Tocqueville and development
In the 1830s, French political thinker and historian Alexis de Tocqueville identified one of the key characteristics of America that would later make it so amenable to the development of mass production: the homogeneous consumer base.
On the other hand, Tocqueville proved shortsighted in noting that a democracy's equality of conditions stifles literary development.

Tocqueville and stating
Although Tocqueville emphasized the egalitarian nature of early 19th century America, Bryce was dismayed to find vast inequality a half-century later, stating " Sixty years ago, there were no great fortunes in America, few large fortunes, no poverty.

Tocqueville and for
The notion of a distinctive religious basis for American democracy and culture was first described and popularized by Alexis de Tocqueville in the 1840s, in his influential book, Democracy in America.
Alexis de Tocqueville suggested in Democracy in America that Puritanism was the very thing that provided a firm foundation for American democracy.
Palmerston privately congratulated Napoleon on his triumph, noting that Britain's constitution was rooted in history but that France had had five revolutions since 1789, with the French Constitution of 1850 being a " day-before-yesterday tomfoolery which the scatterbrain heads of Marrast and Tocqueville invented for the torment and perplexity of the French nation ".
Fishkin cites extensive empirical support for the increase in public spiritedness that is often caused by participation in deliberation, and says theoretical support can be traced back to foundational democratic thinkers such as John Stuart Mill and Alexis de Tocqueville.
In developing material for his book, Bryce painstakingly reproduced the travels of Alexis de Tocqueville, writer of Democracy in America.
In the series, " In the Footsteps of Tocqueville ", Lévy imitated his compatriot and predecessor in American critique, Alexis de Tocqueville, criss-crossing the United States, interviewing Americans and recording his observations first for magazine and then book publication.
His most notable work, the 1958 photobook titled The Americans, was influential, and earned Frank comparisons to a modern-day de Tocqueville for his fresh and skeptical outsider's view of American society.
* John C. Spencer at Tocqueville. org ( diary entry for July 17 )
He became a good friend of Alexis de Tocqueville ( 1805 – 1859 ), whom he met in 1833 for the first time before the publishing of Democracy in America.
He was responsible for many extremely perceptive and well-executed English translations of major French and Dutch literary works, including works by Émile Zola, Maurice Maeterlinck, Alexis de Tocqueville, Jean Henri Fabre, Maurice Leblanc, Gaston Leroux, François René, vicomte de Chateaubriand, and Louis Couperus.
Citizens ' associations play an important role in the democratic process, providing a place for individuals to learn about public affairs and a source of power outside that of the state, according to theorists like Alexis de Tocqueville.
" He then began a public speaking and writing career, and has received several awards from libertarian organizations, including the Alexis de Tocqueville Award for Excellence in Advancement of Educational Freedom in 1997.
* Alexis de Tocqueville Institution ( Disinfopedia, Center for Media & Democracy )
Other awards: the German Booksellers Peace Prize, 1977 ; Erasmus Prize, 1980 ; Veillon Foundation European Prize for the Essay, 1980 ; MacArthur Award, 1982 ; University of Chicago Press Gordon J. Laing Award, 1991 ; Tocqueville Prize, 1994.
Secondly, Tocqueville repeatedly stresses is that if people want freedom not for its own sake but for some other goal, to further their material interest, it is unlikely that freedom will not turn into a despotic form of rule, where everyone may be free to further their material interest but without political freedom.
Other modern thinkers are studied for their reflections about republicanism: Benjamin Constant or Alexis de Tocqueville introduced many republican, however modern not classical, arguments in their books.
As noted by Alexis de Tocqueville, there is a belief that a bigger role of the government in the economy will make people feel less responsible for the society.

Tocqueville and United
The concept originates from Alexis de Tocqueville, who asserted that the then-50-year-old United States held a special place among nations because it was a country of immigrants and the first modern democracy.
" During this time Houston was interviewed by the author Alexis de Tocqueville, who was traveling in the United States and its territories.
De Tocqueville wrote in his Democracy in America ( 1835 ) that " The absence in the United States of those vast accumulations of wealth which favor the expenditures of large sums on articles of mere luxury ... impact to the productions of American industry a character distinct from that of other countries ' industries.
This observation can be traced to Alexis de Tocqueville, the first writer to describe the United States as " exceptional " in 1831 and 1840.
In 1835 Alexis De Tocqueville, a French author traveling throughout the United States, wrote,
Sparks was one of the American intellectuals who received Alexis de Tocqueville during his 1831 – 32 visit to the United States.
* Alexis de Tocqueville Institution ( a conservative think tank in the United States )
Yet Montesquieu's political treatise had an enormous influence on the work of many others, most notably: Catherine the Great, who produced Nakaz ( Instruction ); the Founding Fathers of the United States Constitution ; and Alexis de Tocqueville, who applied Montesquieu's methods to a study of American society, in Democracy in America.

Tocqueville and are
The norms of tolerance, reciprocity, and trust are important " habits of the heart ," as de Tocqueville put it, in an individual's involvement in community.
Its later proponents ( such as Tocqueville, Constant, Montesquieu, John Locke, David Hume and John Stuart Mill, who accepted Chrysippus ' understanding of self-determination ) insisted that constraint and discipline were the antithesis of liberty and so were ( and are ) less prone to confusing liberty and constraint in the manner of rationalists and the philosophical harbingers of totalitarianism.
Justices of the peace used to be noblemen or squires but they now are more like what Alexis de Tocqueville described in Democracy in America as " well-informed citizens ".

Tocqueville and life
In the first half of the 19th century, Alexis de Tocqueville had observations about American life that seemed to outline and define social capital.
The concept that underlies social capital has a much longer history ; thinkers exploring the relation between associational life and democracy were using similar concepts regularly by the 19th century, drawing on the work of earlier writers such as James Madison ( The Federalist Papers ) and Alexis de Tocqueville ( Democracy in America ) to integrate concepts of social cohesion and connectedness into the pluralist tradition in American political science.
After quitting political life, the political thinker Alexis de Tocqueville retreated to the family estate of Tocqueville where he wrote much of his work.

Tocqueville and their
As Sheldon Wolin puts it, " Tocqueville was aware of the harshness and bigotry of the early colonists "; but on the other hand he saw them as " archaic survivals, not only in their piety and discipline but in their democratic practices ".
Soon, due to work of Robert Putnam, they started to treat Tocqueville as a main theoretician of civil society and their primary ancestor.
Thus they got under influence of neoliberal ideologies since Tocqueville was a liberal, not a republican theorist, giving new impetus to their work.
In Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville argues that the abolition of the laws of primogeniture and entail in the law of inheritance of private property ( as opposed to inheritance of a monarchy ) result in the more rapid division of land and thus force landed people to seek wealth outside the family estate in order to maintain their previous standard of living, accelerating the death of the landed aristocracy and also quickening the shift to democracy.
In his later letters, Tocqueville indicates, however, that he and Beaumont used their official business as a pretext to study American society instead.
After they returned to France in February 1832, Tocqueville and Beaumont submitted their report, Du système pénitentiaire aux États-Unis et de son application en France, in 1833.
The literature on relations between civil society and democratic political society have their roots in early classical liberal writings like those of Alexis de Tocqueville.
During the same period, Caragiale had the initiative to publish short fragments he had translated from classical pieces, leaving readers to guess who their authors were — Vianu, citing the speculations made by other critics, presumed that these were writers admired by both Caragiale and his friend, the schoolteacher Anghel Demetrescu ( Thomas Carlyle, Alexis de Tocqueville, Thomas Babington Macaulay, François Guizot and Augustin Thierry ).

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