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Tocqueville and traced
Fishkin cites extensive empirical support for the increase in public spiritedness that is often caused by participation in deliberation, and says theoretical support can be traced back to foundational democratic thinkers such as John Stuart Mill and Alexis de Tocqueville.
This observation can be traced to Alexis de Tocqueville, the first writer to describe the United States as " exceptional " in 1831 and 1840.

Tocqueville and development
In the 1830s, French political thinker and historian Alexis de Tocqueville identified one of the key characteristics of America that would later make it so amenable to the development of mass production: the homogeneous consumer base.
Tocqueville considered the separate spheres of women and men a positive development, stating: " As for myself, I do not hesitate to avow that although the women of the United States are confined within the narrow circle of domestic life, and their situation is in some respects one of extreme dependence, I have nowhere seen women occupying a loftier position ; and if I were asked, (...) to what the singular prosperity and growing strength of that people ought mainly to be attributed, I should reply ,— to the superiority of their women.
On the other hand, Tocqueville proved shortsighted in noting that a democracy's equality of conditions stifles literary development.

Tocqueville and equality
The aristocracy, Tocqueville believed, was gradually disappearing as the modern world experienced the beneficial effects of equality.
Thus, Marc Antoine Baudott considered that French temperament inclined rather to equality than liberty, a theme which would be re-used by Pierre Louis Roederer and Alexis de Tocqueville, while Jacques Necker considered that an equal society could only be found on coercion.

Tocqueville and such
The concept that underlies social capital has a much longer history ; thinkers exploring the relation between associational life and democracy were using similar concepts regularly by the 19th century, drawing on the work of earlier writers such as James Madison ( The Federalist Papers ) and Alexis de Tocqueville ( Democracy in America ) to integrate concepts of social cohesion and connectedness into the pluralist tradition in American political science.
Although not a notable traveller, Acton spent much time in the chief intellectual centres of Europe and in the United States and numbered among his friends such men as Montalembert, Tocqueville, Fustel de Coulanges, Bluntschli, von Sybel and Ranke.
In the work of early 19th century political theorists such as Alexis de Tocqueville, the term was used in discussions of elite concerns about a shift in the body politic of the Western world pronounced since the French Revolution.
Because of this confusion, legal threats and public relations campaigns apparently directed against the kernel, such as those launched by the SCO Group or the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution ( AdTI ), have been misinterpreted by many commentators who assume that the whole operating system is being targeted.
The maxim of liberal conservatism, according to scholar Andrew Vincent, is " economics is prior to politics ", while others emphasize elements such as the openness of historical progress and a suspicion of tyrannical majorities behind the hailing of individual liberties and traditional virtues by authors such as Tocqueville and Burke and as the basis of current liberal conservatism as seen both in the works of Raymond Aron and Michael Oakeshott and the ideological outlook of right-of-center parties.
One historical example of such detachment is Alexis de Tocqueville and the medium of typography.
Its later proponents ( such as Tocqueville, Constant, Montesquieu, John Locke, David Hume and John Stuart Mill, who accepted Chrysippus ' understanding of self-determination ) insisted that constraint and discipline were the antithesis of liberty and so were ( and are ) less prone to confusing liberty and constraint in the manner of rationalists and the philosophical harbingers of totalitarianism.
* The conservative implications of writings by well-known authors such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Sir Walter Scott, Alexis de Tocqueville, James Fenimore Cooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne, James Russell Lowell, George Gissing, George Santayana, Robert Frost, and T. S. Eliot ;
He frequently refers to such figures as Frédéric Bastiat, Alexis de Tocqueville, Friedrich Hayek or Milton Friedman.

Tocqueville and all
:" Whatever the case ", continued Tocqueville, " we may say in a general manner that all political freedoms must be suspended in Algeria.
Influenced by Alexis de Tocqueville and Augustin Cochin, Furet argues that Frenchmen must stop seeing the revolution as the key to all aspects of modern French history.
Alexis de Tocqueville was apparently the first to use the term social structure ; later, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Max Weber, Ferdinand Tönnies, and Émile Durkheim all contributed to structural concepts in sociology.
First, Tocqueville points out that even though the Revolutionaries attempted to completely abolish all institutions of the Old Regime, they reverted to many of its foundations.
Influenced by Alexis de Tocqueville and Augustin Cochin, Furet argues that Frenchmen must stop seeing the revolution as the key to all aspects of modern French history.

Tocqueville and economic
The theme of a religious basis of economic discipline is echoed in sociologist Max Weber's work, but both de Tocqueville and Weber argued that this discipline was not a force of economic determinism, but one factor among many that should be considered when evaluating the relative economic success of the Puritans.

Tocqueville and from
The Tocqueville Connection states: " Most of the ambassadors were appointed by former prime minister Lansana Kouyaté, in office from February 2007 until May 2008 ," raising the possibility that the recall was an attempt on the part of Camara to distance himself from the previous government.
In the second chapter, de Tocqueville describes America's unique religious heritage from the Puritans.
In May 2004, Kenneth Brown of the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution made the accusation that major parts of the Linux kernel had been copied from the MINIX codebase, in a book called Samizdat.
The concept originates from Alexis de Tocqueville, who asserted that the then-50-year-old United States held a special place among nations because it was a country of immigrants and the first modern democracy.
De Tocqueville wrote in his Democracy in America ( 1835 ) that " The absence in the United States of those vast accumulations of wealth which favor the expenditures of large sums on articles of mere luxury ... impact to the productions of American industry a character distinct from that of other countries ' industries.
* Tocqueville in Flint – Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
* Tocqueville in Stockbridge-Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
Marie-Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
* Tocqueville in Mackinac Island-Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
* Tocqueville in Pontiac-Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
* Tocqueville in Fort Brewerton-Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
Like Alexis de Tocqueville, Santayana observed American culture and character from a foreigner's point of view.
Noting the rise of the industrial sector in the American economy, Tocqueville, some scholars have argued, also correctly predicted that an industrial aristocracy would rise from the ownership of labor.
( However, Tocqueville believed that an industrial aristocracy would differ from the formal aristocracy of the past.
* Tocqueville in Wethersfield-Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
* Tocqueville in Batavia-Segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour

Tocqueville and abolition
In Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville argues that the abolition of the laws of primogeniture and entail in the law of inheritance of private property ( as opposed to inheritance of a monarchy ) result in the more rapid division of land and thus force landed people to seek wealth outside the family estate in order to maintain their previous standard of living, accelerating the death of the landed aristocracy and also quickening the shift to democracy.

Tocqueville and .
The norms of tolerance, reciprocity, and trust are important " habits of the heart ," as de Tocqueville put it, in an individual's involvement in community.
Alexis de Tocqueville argued that the Revolution was a manifestation of a more prosperous middle class becoming conscious of its social importance.
He was involved in 1994 as writer and reviewer of a report on the issue by the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution, where he was a senior fellow.
* Tocqueville, Alexis de.
Many believe that Strauss also found historicism in Edmund Burke, Tocqueville, Augustine, and John Stuart Mill.
Alexis de Tocqueville also claimed that jury trials educate citizens about self-government.
The notion of a distinctive religious basis for American democracy and culture was first described and popularized by Alexis de Tocqueville in the 1840s, in his influential book, Democracy in America.
As de Tocqueville observed, the Puritan's biblical outlook gave America a moral dimension which the Old World lacked.
De Tocqueville believed these biblical values led to America's unique institutions of religious tolerance, public education, egalitarianism, and democracy.
Alexis de Tocqueville suggested in Democracy in America that Puritanism was the very thing that provided a firm foundation for American democracy.
For example, classical scholar Alexis de Tocqueville differentiated between 1 ) political revolutions 2 ) sudden and violent revolutions that seek not only to establish a new political system but to transform an entire society and 3 ) slow but sweeping transformations of the entire society that take several generations to bring about ( ex.
* April 16 – Alexis de Tocqueville, French historian ( b. 1805 )
* July 29 – Alexis de Tocqueville, French historian ( d. 1859 )
Soon, due to work of Robert Putnam, they started to treat Tocqueville as a main theoretician of civil society and their primary ancestor.
Thus they got under influence of neoliberal ideologies since Tocqueville was a liberal, not a republican theorist, giving new impetus to their work.
In the first half of the 19th century, Alexis de Tocqueville had observations about American life that seemed to outline and define social capital.
The Tocqueville Review.
" During this time Houston was interviewed by the author Alexis de Tocqueville, who was traveling in the United States and its territories.

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