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Page "Single UNIX Specification" ¶ 4
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Unix and International
In March 1994 CDE became the responsibility of the " new OSF ", a merger of the Open Software Foundation and Unix International ;
In 1994, after AT & T had sold UNIX System V to Novell and the rival Unix International consortium had disbanded, the Open Software Foundation ceased funding of research and development of OSF / 1.
OSF had previously merged with UNIX International in 1994, meaning that the new entity effectively represented all elements of the Unix community of the time.
Ron bootstrapped Small-C on the SRI International PDP 11 / 45 Unix system with an account provided by John Bass for Small C development ( with management permission, provided the compiler sources were released as public domain ).
* Unix International
By 1990 the group had expanded to 21 members: in addition to the original five, Philips and Nokia from Europe ; AT & T, Digital, Unisys, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, NCR, Sun Microsystems, Prime Computer, Apollo Computer from North America ; Fujitsu, Hitachi, and NEC from Japan ; plus the Open Software Foundation and Unix International.
Whereas Unix time is based on Coordinated Universal Time ( UTC ) and is subject to leap seconds, PTP is based on International Atomic Time ( TAI ) and moves forward monotonically.

Unix and UI
Unix System Laboratories ( USL ) filled the software development role and UI was based in Parsippany, New Jersey to be close to USL.
In May, the Common Open Software Environment ( COSE ) initiative was announced by the major players in the UNIX world from both the UI and OSF camps: Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Sun, Unix System Laboratories, and the Santa Cruz Operation.
In March 1993 the major participants in UI and OSF formed the Common Open Software Environment ( COSE ) alliance, effectively marking the end of the most significant era of the Unix wars.

Unix and merged
In 1993, Novell purchased USL from AT & T and merged USL and Univel into a new Unix Systems Group.
Bell Labs developed several variants of V6, including the stripped-down MINI-UNIX for low-end PDP-11 models, LSI-UNIX or LSX for the LSI-11, and the real-time operating system UNIX / RT, which merged V6 Unix and the earlier MERT hypervisor.
Veritas Cluster Server ( also known as VCS and also sold bundled in the SFHA product ) is a High-availability cluster software, for Unix, Linux and Microsoft Windows computer systems, created by Vinca Software who later merged with Veritas Software ( now part of Symantec ).

Unix and into
* The original Star Desktop evolved into the ViewPoint Desktop and later became GlobalView which was ported to various Unix platforms, such as SunOS Unix and AIX, A Mesa to C compiler was written and the resulting code compiled for the target platform.
The 68000 became the dominant CPU for Unix based workstations including Sun workstations and Apollo / Domain workstations, found its way into heralded computers such as the Apple Lisa and Macintosh, Amiga, Atari ST, and was used in the first generation of desktop laser printers including the original Apple Inc. LaserWriter and the HP LaserJet.
These programs transform certain parts of a document into troff input, fitting naturally into the use of " pipelines " in Unix — sending the output of one program as the input to another ( see pipes and filters ).
Because of the severity of fsck not being able to resolve this error, the terms " fsck " and " fscked " have come into use among Unix system administrators as a minced oath.
The manual is generally split into eight numbered sections, organized as follows ( on BSD, Unix and Linux ):
* Ken Thompson publishes his seminal paper, Reflections on Trusting Trust, in which he describes how he modified a C compiler so that when used to compile a specific version of the Unix operating system, it inserted a backdoor into the login command, and when used to compile itself, it inserted the backdoor insertion code, even if neither the backdoor nor the backdoor insertion code were present in the source code.
While the converged Unix from the Sun and AT & T alliance ( that spawned the Open Software Foundation or OSF ), released late 1986, put BSD features into System V, DEC took the best from System V and added it to a BSD base.
Like many other Unix variants with small market shares, Amiga Unix vanished into the mists of computer history when its vendor, Commodore, went out of business.
The compatibility layer used some existing Toolbox functions in the computer ’ s ROM, while other function calls were translated into native Unix system calls.
In 4. 4BSD and BSD Unix systems derived from it, such as FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and DragonFlyBSD, the implementation of UFS1 and UFS2 is split into two layers — an upper layer that provides the directory structure and supports metadata ( permissions, ownership, etc.
The influence of universities and research institutions on open source shows in the number of projects named after their host institutions, such as BSD Unix, CMU Common Lisp, or the NCSA HTTPd which evolved into Apache.
< tt >/ dev / null </ tt > is a special file, not a directory, so one cannot move a whole directory into it with the Unix < tt > mv </ tt > command.
At the time Unix was making major inroads into the supercomputing fields, but ETA decided to write their own EOS operating system, which wasn't ready when the first machines were delivered in late 1986 and early 1987.
1990s era NCs are often network-booted into a minimal Unix with X, to serve as X terminal.
Thus, pre-Sixth Edition Unix versions read an executable file into memory and jumped to the first low memory address of the program, relative address zero.
Through the late 1980s several major efforts to re-combine the many Unix derivatives into a single system were underway, and the most significant among these was the AT & T-led System V. System V included an entirely new networking stack, STREAMS, replacing the existing Berkeley sockets system.
CET softwere was complete compatible with OASIS / THEOS and allowed these users to go into the Unix and ms world.
A typical arrangement is for the entire Unix system to have a single partition allocated to it which is then subdivided into distinct slices for each filesystem and the swap area.
They also became the second company to ship a multiprocessor Unix system ( branded OS / x ), in 1985, which formed the basis of their product line into the early 1990s.
Some versions of Unix use a relatively expensive implementation of the crypt library function for hashing an 8-character password into an 11-character string.
The VAX 9000 ran into delays, and by the time it shipped newer Unix workstations had already surpassed it in performance, at a tiny fraction of the cost ( or size ).

Unix and Open
* Open Dylan-Host of two open source, optimizing Dylan compilers targeting Unix / Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows
Although born from the same history of Unix, Internet free software, and the hacker culture as the free software movement launched by Richard Stallman and his Free Software Foundation, the Open Source Initiative was formed and chose the term open source, in Michael Tiemann's words, to " dump the moralizing and confrontational attitude that had been associated with ' free software ' in the past and sell the idea strictly on the same pragmatic, business-case grounds that had motivated Netscape.
* Open Sound System, a standard interface for making and capturing sound in Unix operating systems
Management over these specifications was assigned to X / Open who also received the Unix trademark from Novell in 1993.
In 1988, during the so-called " Unix wars ", DEC joined with IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and others to form the Open Software Foundation ( OSF ) to develop a version of Unix.
The " 2900 " suffix was dropped at System Version 213 ( SV213 ) when ICL launched Series 39 in 1985 as the successor to the original 2900 series ; and the " Open " prefix was added after SV294 when VME became capable of hosting applications written originally for Unix through a UNIX System V Release 3 based subsystem using the ASCII character encoding adapted to run under VME.
Noteworthy to mention was the graphics card in Amiga A2500 Unix, which was in 1991 the first computer to implement an X11 server program as a server for hosting graphical environments and the Open Look GUI graphical interface in high resolution ( 1024x1024 or 1024x768 at 256 colors ).
The Open Sound System ( OSS ) is an interface for making and capturing sound in Unix or Unix-like operating systems.
By June 1993, the major UNIX players, including AT & T and Sun, had decided that a truly unified Unix was necessary in order to better compete against Microsoft and had formed the Common Open Software Environment ( COSE ) initiative.
Several Open Source programs have become defining entries in their space, including the GIMP image editing system ; Sun's Java programming language and environment ; the MySQL database system ; the FreeBSD Unix operating system ; Sun's OpenOffice. org office productivity suite ; and the Wireshark network packet sniffer and protocol analyser.
* Open system ( computing ), one of a class of computers and associated software that provides some combination of interoperability, portability and open software standards, particularly Unix and Unix-like systems
Technical issues soon took a back seat to vicious and public commercial competition between the two " open " versions of Unix, with X / Open holding the middle ground.
In June, AT & T sold its UNIX assets to Novell, and in October Novell transferred the Unix brand to X / Open.
COSE work such as the Single UNIX Specification, the current standard for branded Unix, is now the responsibility of the Open Group.
Or, according to Open Source advocate Eric Raymond, BSD systems can be considered " genetic Unix ", if not " trademark Unix ".

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