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User-based collaborative filtering attempts to model the social process of asking a friend for a recommendation.
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User-based and for
User-based and .
* User-based IdM has started to evolve away from username / password and web-access control systems toward those that embrace preferences, parental controls, entitlements, policy-based routing, presence and loyalty schemes.
collaborative and filtering
Clay Shirky traces the origin of the term " social software " to Eric Drexler's 1987 discussion of " hypertext publishing systems " like the subsequent World Wide Web, and how systems of this kind could support software for public critical discussion, collaborative development, group commitment, and collaborative filtering of content based on voting and rating.
* GraphLab GraphLab collaborative filtering library, large scale parallel implementation of matrix decomposition methods ( in C ++) for multicore.
In general, collaborative filtering is the process of filtering for information or patterns using techniques involving collaboration among multiple agents, viewpoints, data sources, etc.
The remainder of this discussion focuses on collaborative filtering for user data, although some of the methods and approaches may apply to the other major applications as well.
In the newer, narrower sense, collaborative filtering is a method of making automatic predictions ( filtering ) about the interests of a user by collecting preferences or taste information from many users ( collaborating ).
The underlying assumption of the collaborative filtering approach is that if a person A has the same opinion as a person B on an issue, A is more likely to have B's opinion on a different issue x than to have the opinion on x of a person chosen randomly.
For example, a collaborative filtering recommendation system for television tastes could make predictions about which television show a user should like given a partial list of that user's tastes ( likes or dislikes ).
The motivation for collaborative filtering comes from the idea that people often get the best recommendation from someone with similar taste.
A key problem of collaborative filtering is how to combine and weight the preferences of user neighbors.
Alternatively, item-based collaborative filtering invented by Amazon. com ( users who bought x also bought y ), proceeds in an item-centric manner:
Another form of collaborative filtering can be based on implicit observations of normal user behavior ( as opposed to the artificial behavior imposed by a rating task ).
Services like Reddit, YouTube, and Last. fm are typical example of collaborative filtering based media.
One scenario of collaborative filtering application is to recommend interesting or popular information as judged by the community.
Another aspect of collaborative filtering system can make more personalized recommendation by analyzing information from your past activity or the history of other users of similar taste.
As in the personalized recommendation scenario, new user or new item can always cause a problem, as there will be insufficient data for the collaborative filtering to work.
collaborative and attempts
Anthropologists Dan Sperber, Edwin Hutchins, Scott Atran, Pascal Boyer and Joseph Henrich have been involved in collaborative projects with cognitive and social psychologists, political scientists and evolutionary biologists in attempts to develop general theories of culture formation, religion and political association.
There was also increasing opposition to the use of psychiatric hospitals, and attempts to move people back into the community on a collaborative user-led group approach (" therapeutic communities ") not controlled by psychiatry.
Overt attempts at Russian " folk " musical style can be detected in passages from his first act of the collaborative Mlada ( 1872 ), The Captain's Daughter, a couple of the children's operas, and a few songs ; many other passages in his music reflect the stylistic curiosities associated with Russian art music of the 19th century, such as whole tone scales and certain harmonic devices.
** This theory attempts to portray " cross-cultural adaption as a collaborative effort in which a stranger and the receiving environment are engaged in a joint effort.
The Association of National Park Authorities is a body that exists to provide the National Park Authorities of England, Wales and Scotland a focus for collaborative working and the sharing of best practice across the parks, training of National Park Authority Members, and attempts to increase public understanding of the statutory purposes for which National Parks exist in the UK, and promotes them as models for sustainable development, using the brand National Parks-Britain's breathing spaces.
In his 1972 paper, Rittel hints at a collaborative approach ; one which attempts, "… to make those people who are being affected into participants of the planning process.
The Synchroedit ( rich text ) and MobWrite ( plain text ) projects are two, more recent, open-source attempts to fill the in gap real-time browser-based collaborative editing, though still unable to achieve true real-time performance, especially on a large scale architecture.
collaborative and model
Inspired by Wikipedia's collaborative writing model, Rampton founded Disinfopedia ( now known as SourceWatch ), another CMD project, to complement his PR Watch work to expose what Rampton perceives as deceptive and misleading public relations campaigns.
MITRE improved on that model by hosting the collaborative session on a server that each user logged into.
It is widely agreed to distinguish collaborative learning from the traditional ' direct transfer ' model in which the instructor is assumed to be the distributor of knowledge and skills, which is often given the neologism E-Learning 1. 0, even though this direct transfer method most accurately reflects Computer-Based Learning systems ( CBL ).
Similarly, a joint-product model analyzes the collaborative effect of joining a private good to a public good.
CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U. S. and worldwide using a standards driven, open-licensed, web-based, collaborative content aggregation model.
Additionally, the methods used by the H. 261 development committee to collaboratively develop the standard have remained the basic operating process for subsequent standardization work in the field ( see S. Okubo, " Reference model methodology-A tool for the collaborative creation of video coding standards ", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.
CMT is a non-formal theory based on work by many researchers to create a collaborative process model for hindsight bias that involves event outcomes.
Lazarsfeld's other significant contributions consisted of constructing the institutions for academic sociology in the United States, including the " shop model " of collaborative research.
Today instruction methods have changed drastically from the mostly one-directional teacher-student model, to a more collaborative approach where the students themselves feel empowered.
This aids in collaborative development efforts where team members may not have direct access to Umbrello, or in cases where model contents should be published on a web site.
* In Niven's collaborative novel Fallen Angels, a science fiction fan has a life-sized model of a Puppeteer skeleton ; to escape prosecution from religious authorities, he claims that it is really a model of a demon's skeleton.
An example of this technique is Joseph Nechvatal's Viral symphOny: a collaborative electronic noise music symphony created between the years 2006 and 2008 using custom artificial life C ++ software based on a viral model.
The single listener model in OpenAL is tailored to a single human user and is not fit for artificial intelligence or robotic simulations or multiple human participants as in collaborative musical performances.
Recommender systems or recommendation systems ( sometimes replacing " system " with a synonym such as platform or engine ) are a subclass of information filtering system that seek to predict the ' rating ' or ' preference ' that a user would give to an item ( such as music, books, or movies ) or social element ( e. g. people or groups ) they had not yet considered, using a model built from the characteristics of an item ( content-based approaches ) or the user's social environment ( collaborative filtering approaches ).
More specifically, collaborative learning is based on the model that knowledge can be created within a population where members actively interact by sharing experiences and take on asymmetry roles.
The collaborative design effort between Rhoads, Grover Jackson, Tim Wilson, and Mike Shannon resulted in the creation of the Concorde, an innovative revamp of the traditional Flying V. The Rhoads guitar model designs were such a departure from Charvel's Stratocaster-based models that Grover elected to label them with his own name.
* The crowdsourcing model, in which a company outsources work to a large group of market players using a collaborative online platform.
The model emphasises collaborative work with the client, and focuses on the understanding of the patterns of maladaptive behaviours.
The EAST model is grounded in solid pedagogical theory related to the use of technology as a catalyst for learning, collaborative learning, and performance-based learning.