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assumptions about any material possibly present can be completely avoided, and Poynting's vector as well as the theorem in this definition are universally valid, in vacuum as in all kinds of material.
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assumptions and about
The assumptions upon which the example shown in Figure 3 is based are: ( A ) One man can direct about six subordinates if the subordinates are chosen carefully so that they do not need too much personal coaching, indoctrinating, etc..
Not all the observers have used the same procedures or made the same assumptions about the lunar brightness distribution when reducing the data, and this, together with differences in the methods of calibrating the antennae and receivers, must account for much of the disagreement in the measured radio brightness temperatures.
Under the most favorable assumptions for increase, the Bureau of the Census projects that the annual rate of household formations will rise from about 883,000 in the last two years of the Fifties to an annual rate of about 1,018,000 in the first five years of the Sixties, and to a slightly higher annual rate of 1,083,000 in the second half of the decade.
The analysis of variance can be presented in terms of a linear model, which makes the following assumptions about the probability distribution of the responses:
He argues that Hayek makes peculiar assumptions about demand curves for labor in his explanation of how a decrease in investment spending creates unemployment.
Nimzowitsch supplemented many of the earlier simplistic assumptions about chess strategy by enunciating in his turn a further number of general concepts of defensive play aimed at achieving one's own goals by preventing realization of the opponent's plans.
Whorf argued that paying attention to how other physical phenomena are described in the study of linguistics could make valuable contributions to science by pointing out the ways in which certain assumptions about reality are implicit in the structure of language itself, and how language guides the attention of speakers towards certain phenomena in the world which risk becoming overemphasized while leaving other phenomena at risk of being overlooked.
John Miles Foley held, specifically with reference to the Beowulf debate, that while comparative work was both necessary and valid, it must be conducted with a view to the particularities of a given tradition ; Foley argued with a view to developments of oral traditional theory that do not assume, or depend upon, finally unverifiable assumptions about composition, and that discard the oral / literate dichotomy focused on composition in favor of a more fluid continuum of traditionality and textuality.
In 1995, Simon Keynes observed that " if Bede's concept of the Southumbrian overlord, and the chronicler's concept of the ' Bretwalda ', are to be regarded as artificial constructs, which have no validity outside the context of the literary works in which they appear, we are released from the assumptions about political development which they seem to involve ... we might ask whether kings in the eighth and ninth centuries were quite so obsessed with the establishment of a pan-Southumbrian state ".
" He suggested instead that the Copenhagen interpretation follows the principle: " What is observed certainly exists ; about what is not observed we are still free to make suitable assumptions.
Clausewitz's Christian names are sometimes given in non-German sources as " Carl Philipp Gottlieb " or " Carl Maria ", because of reliance on mistaken source material, conflation with his wife's name, Marie, or mistaken assumptions about German orthography.
Several replies argue that Searle's argument is irrelevant because his assumptions about the mind and consciousness are faulty.
For these reasons, rasterization is usually the approach of choice when interactive rendering is required ; however, the pixel-by-pixel approach can often produce higher-quality images and is more versatile because it does not depend on as many assumptions about the image as rasterization.
Beyond the initial increase in distortion, lower bit rate codecs also achieve their lower bit rates by using more complex algorithms that make certain assumptions, such as those about the media and the packet loss rate.
According to E. K. Hunt, classical liberals made four assumptions about human nature: People were " egoistic, coldly calculating, essentially inert and atomistic ".
Social perceptions of the clitoris range from the significance of its role in female sexual pleasure, assumptions about its true size and depth, and varying beliefs regarding genital modification such as clitoris enlargement, clitoris piercing and clitoridectomy.
Painter and Jeffrey argue that geography as a discipline was not and is not an objective science, rather it is based on assumptions about the physical world.
For instance, if the expected sale price of John Doe's house in the example above was not $ 150, 000 in three years, but $ 130, 000 in three years or $ 150, 000 in five years, then on the above assumptions buying the house would actually cause John to lose money in present-value terms ( about $ 3, 000 in the first case, and about $ 8, 000 in the second ).
1 ) The discount rate assumption relies on the market for competing investments at the time of the analysis, which would likely change, perhaps dramatically, over time, and 2 ) straight line assumptions about income increasing over ten years are generally based upon historic increases in market rent but never factors in the cyclical nature of many real estate markets.
Robert Lowie later said that Sapir's fascination with indigenous languages stemmed from the seminar with Boas in which Boas used examples from Native American languages to disprove all of Sapir's common-sense assumptions about the basic nature of Language.
In Freedom Evolves, Daniel Dennett argues that a no-free-will conclusion is based on dubious assumptions about the location of consciousness, as well as questioning the accuracy and interpretation of Libet's results.
Knowledge of essences would only be possible by " bracketing " all assumptions about the existence of an external world.
assumptions and any
I do mean, however, that I take them for granted, and that everything I shall be saying would appear quite idiotic against any contrary assumptions.
In the high Middle Ages — and well into the early modern period — few intellectuals, if any, questioned the basic assumptions of astrology: humans live within a web of celestial influences that affect our bodies, and thereby motivate us to behave in certain ways.
Most of the C code being written nowadays is based on ANSI C. Any program written only in standard C and without any hardware dependent assumptions is virtually guaranteed to compile correctly on any platform with a conforming C implementation.
In addressing his embryo drawings to a general audience, Haeckel does not cite any sources, which gives his opponents the freedom to make assumptions regarding the originality of his work.
In the EPR paper ( 1935 ) the authors realised that quantum mechanics was inconsistent with their assumptions, but Einstein nevertheless thought that quantum mechanics might simply be augmented by hidden variables ( i. e. variables which were, at that point, still obscure to him ), without any other change, to achieve an acceptable theory.
Some authors claim that Gelasius replaced Lupercalia with the " Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary ", but this is based in incorrect assumptions, and there is no written record of Gelasius intending any such thing.
Later in the same year Einstein derived the Lorentz transformation under the assumptions of the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light in any inertial reference frame,
There are any number of approaches to teaching literacy ; each is shaped by its informing assumptions about what literacy is and how it is best learned by students.
In any case, mathematics shares much in common with many fields in the physical sciences, notably the exploration of the logical consequences of assumptions.
The development of algebraic geometry from its classical to modern forms is a particularly striking example of the way an area of mathematics can change radically in its viewpoint, without making what was correctly proved before in any way incorrect ; of course mathematical progress clarifies gaps in previous proofs, often by exposing hidden assumptions, which progress has revealed worth conceptualizing.
This is in accord with the analytical method which has since come to be called Ockham's razor, the principle that the explanation of any phenomenon should make as few assumptions as possible.
* Merriam-Webster: Either " of, relating to, or being an era after a modern one ", or " of, relating to, or being any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by a return to traditional materials and forms ( as in architecture ) or by ironic self-reference and absurdity ( as in literature )", or, finally " of, relating to, or being a theory that involves a radical reappraisal of modern assumptions about culture, identity, history, or language ".
Those inconsistencies are used to show that the interpretation and criticism of any literature is in the hands of the reader and includes that reader's own cultural biases and assumptions.
Given that the validity of conclusions drawn from a statistical analysis depend on the validity of any assumptions made, it is clearly important that these assumptions should be reviewed at some stage.
Depending on assumptions about the accuracy of the system and the number of missiles it would have to face, between 400 and 3, 600 such satellites would be needed in order to keep enough above the USSR at any one time.
This specification does not make any assumptions on the implementation itself, but rather describes the interfaces and the expected behavior of an implementation.
The proof of a mathematical theorem is a logical argument demonstrating that the conclusions are a necessary consequence of the hypotheses, in the sense that if the hypotheses are true then the conclusions must also be true, without any further assumptions.
Another proposed solution is to question one of the assumptions Zeno used in his paradoxes ( particularly the Dichotomy ), which is that between any two different points in space ( or time ), there is always another point.
In that work, Gibbs showed that those processes could be accounted for by Maxwell's equations without any special assumptions about the microscopic structure of matter or about the nature of the medium in which electromagnetic waves were supposed to propagate ( the so-called luminiferous aether ).
The light echoes of supernova 1987A are also geometric measurements, without any stellar models or assumptions.
As far as computer security is concerned, reasoning about the security properties of a computer system requires being able to make sound assumptions about what it can, and more importantly, cannot do ; however, barring any reason to believe otherwise, a computer is able to do everything that a general Von Neumann machine can.
These assumptions include the average retirement age and lifespan of the employees, the returns to be earned by the pension plan's investments and any additional taxes or levies, such as those required by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation in the U. S. So, for this arrangement, the benefit is relatively secure but the contribution is uncertain even when estimated by a professional.
When a group adopts any one of these basic assumptions, it interferes with the task the group is attempting to accomplish.