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The medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of enquiry and produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation ; and Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research The University of Bologne is considered the oldest continually operating university.
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medieval and universities
Some of these ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities.
In fact, lecturers in the medieval universities commonly advanced evidence in favor of the idea that the Earth was a sphere.
Even the scientific handling of law, which has grown up during medieval times in the new universities in Italy ( in particular in Bologna, Mantua ) did not come to a full and clear separation.
At many medieval universities, this would have been the course leading to the degree of Master of Arts ( after the BA ).
After the breakup of the western Roman Empire, the study of rhetoric continued to be central to the study of the verbal arts ; but the study of the verbal arts went into decline for several centuries, followed eventually by a gradual rise in formal education, culminating in the rise of medieval universities.
In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects that were taught first: grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
In medieval European Scholasticism, science as taught at universities was obliged to restrict its attention to the natural world.
As with most medieval universities, Uppsala University initially grew out of an ecclesiastical center.
As was also the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala had initially been chartered through a papal bull.
The system of dividing students into nations according to origin can ultimately be traced back to the nations at the medieval University of Paris and other early medieval universities, but the Uppsala nations appear only about 1630 – 1640, most likely under influence of the Landsmannschaften which existed at some of the German universities visited by Swedish students.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ( scholastics, or schoolmen ) of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 – 1500, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Dialectics ( also called logic ) was one of the three liberal arts taught in medieval universities as part of the trivium.
Seneca's plays were widely read in medieval and Renaissance European universities and strongly influenced tragic drama in that time, such as Elizabethan England ( Shakespeare and other playwrights ), France ( Corneille and Racine ), and the Netherlands ( Joost van den Vondel ).
medieval and Western
Conversely the use of true brass seems to have declined in Western Europe during this period in favour of gunmetals and other mixed alloys but by the end of the first Millennium AD brass artefacts are found in Scandinavian graves in Scotland, brass was being used in the manufacture of coins in Northumbria and there is archaeological and historical evidence for the production of brass in Germany and The Low Countries areas rich in calamine ore which would remain important centres of brass making throughout the medieval period, especially Dinant – brass objects are still collectively known as dinanterie in French.
In a historical or geopolitical sense the term usually refers collectively to Christian majority countries or countries in which Christianity dominates or was a territorial phenomenon .“ Christendom is originally a medieval concept steadily to have evolved since the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the gradual rise of the Papacy more in religio-temporal implication practically during and after the reign of Charlemagne ; and the concept let itself to be lulled in the minds of the staunch believers to the archetype of a holy religious space inhabited by Christians, blessed by God, the Heavenly Father, ruled by Christ through the Church and protected by the Spirit-body of Christ ; no wonder, this concept, as included the whole of Europe and then the expanding Christian territories on earth, strengthened the roots of Romance of the greatness of Christianity in the world .”
The term is generally not used in art history in speaking of medieval painting, although the Western tradition was developing in large altarpieces, fresco cycles, and other works, as well as miniatures in illuminated manuscripts.
Anecdotal literature reinforces this impression of general societal acceptance of the public celebration of male-male love ( which hostile Western caricatures of Islamic societies in medieval and early modern times simply exaggerate ).
Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that much of Judaism's more than 3, 000-year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West ( that is, Europe, particularly medieval and modern Europe ).
In medieval ( 9th-11th centuries ) Byzantine sources written in Greek, Khazaria was referred to as Eastern Tourkia ( Τουρκία ), whereas the Principality of Hungary was referred to as Western Tourkia.
The Middle Ages ( adjectival forms: medieval, mediaeval, and mediæval ) is the period of European history encompassing the 5th to the 15th centuries, normally marked from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire ( the end of Classical Antiquity ) until the beginning of the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery, the periods which ushered in the Modern Era.
Babylonian astronomy served as the basis for much of Greek, classical Indian, Sassanian, Byzantine, Syrian, medieval Islamic, Central Asian, and Western European astronomy.
Medieval fortification is military methods of medieval technology that covers the development of fortification construction and use in Europe roughly from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance.
The identification of Mary Magdalene as prostitute and adulteress is perpetuated by much Western medieval Christian art.
He stands near the end of the classical development of philosophy, and was very influential on Western medieval philosophy ( Greek and Latin ) as well as Islamic thought.
The nature of God in monotheistic religions is a broad topic in Western philosophy of religion and theology, with a very old and distinguished history ; it was one of the central topics in medieval philosophy.
It is sometimes cited as the notional end of the Middle Ages by historians who define the medieval period as the time between the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and the fall of the Byzantine ( Eastern Roman ) Empire.
Some scholars interested in the relationships between Western philosophy and the history of ideas in Islam and Arabic philosophical medieval sources may have been influenced by Heidegger's work, including recent studies by Nader El-Bizri.
" Faced with the problem of " madness ," Western individualism proved to be ill-prepared to defend the rights of the individual: modern man has no more right to be a madman than medieval man had a right to be a heretic because if once people agree that they have identified the one true God, or Good, it brings about that they have to guard members and nonmembers of the group from the temptation to worship false gods or goods.
Western Christianity is a term used to include the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and groups historically derivative thereof, including the churches of the Anglican, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and other Protestant traditions that share common attributes that can be traced back to their medieval heritage.
Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified Rollo instead with Ganger Hrolf ( Hrolf, the Walker ), a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre, in Western Norway, based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas.
Manuscripts written in the medieval Bulgarian tsardom have, on the other hand, few Western Slavic features.
Western writers often describe the Zhou period as " feudal " because the Zhou's early rule invites comparison with medieval rule in Europe.
During the medieval period, Western scholarship on the Ismailis contributed to the popular view of the community as a radical sect of assassins, believed to be trained for the precise murder of their adversaries.