Page "A New Kind of Science" Paragraph 13
While Wolfram promotes simple programs as a scientific discipline, he also insists that its methodology will revolutionize essentially every field of science.
The basis for his claim is that the study of simple programs is the minimal possible form of science, which is equally grounded in both abstraction and empirical experimentation.
Every aspect of the methodology advocated in NKS is optimized to make experimentation as direct, easy, and meaningful as possible — while maximizing the chances that the experiment will do something unexpected.
Just as NKS allows computational mechanisms to be studied in their cleanest forms, Wolfram believes the process of doing NKS captures the essence of the process of doing science — and allows that process's strengths and shortcomings to be directly revealed.