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Although central banks today are generally associated with fiat money, the 19th and early 20th centuries central banks in most of Europe and Japan developed under the international gold standard, elsewhere free banking or currency boards were more usual at this time.
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Although Whorf's approach to understanding the Maya script is now known to have been misguided, his central claim that the script was phonetic and should be deciphered as such was vindicated by Yuri Knorozov's syllabic decipherment of Mayan writing in the 1950s.
Although the perception by the public may be that the " central bank " controls some or all interest rates and currency rates, economic theory ( and substantial empirical evidence ) shows that it is impossible to do both at once in an open economy.
Although the mechanism differs from country to country, most use a similar mechanism based on a central bank's ability to create as much fiat money as required.
Although all rebellions were eventually put down at enormous cost and casualties, the central imperial authority was seriously weakened.
Although the sample values x < sub > i </ sub > will be concentrated about the central value x < sub > 0 </ sub >, the sample mean will become increasingly variable as more samples are taken, because of the increased likelihood of encountering sample points with a large absolute value.
Although love is central to both Christianity and Judaism, literary critic Harold Bloom ( in his Jesus and Yahweh: The Names Divine ) argues that their notions of love are fundamentally different.
Although " Oedipus's enquiry is based on supernatural, pre-rational methods that are evident in most narratives of crime until the development of Enlightenment thought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries " it has " all of the central characteristics and formal elements of the detective story, including a mystery sur-rounding a murder, a closed circle of suspects, and the gradual uncovering of a hidden past.
Although opinions differ as to his character there is no dispute over his great achievements: he helped to save the Habsburg Empire from French conquest ; he broke the westward thrust of the Ottomans, liberating central Europe after a century and a half of Turkish occupation ; and he was one of the great patrons of the arts whose building legacy can still be seen in Vienna today.
Although it is difficult to maintain a pure and strict essentialist-only curriculum, these schools have the central aim of establishing a common knowledge base for all citizens.
Although by 1000 Germanic conquest of central, western, and southern Europe west of and including Italy was complete, excluding only Muslim Iberia, there was no process equivalent to Han sinification, and " Germany " remained largely a conceptual term referring to an amorphous area of central Europe.
Although the Mughals kept the imperial title until 1858, the central government had collapsed, creating a power vacuum.
Although the " Arthur of romance " was sometimes central to these new Arthurian works ( as he was in Burne-Jones's The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon, 1881 – 1898 ), on other occasions he reverted back to his medieval status and is either marginalised or even missing entirely, with Wagner's Arthurian operas providing a notable instance of the latter.
Although by 1900, it was virtually nonexistent as a labor union, the Knights maintained a central office until 1917 and held conventions until 1932.
Although neither Priestley nor Watt were to move to Birmingham for several years, both were to be in constant communication with the Birmingham members and central to the circle's activities from 1767.
Although Luthor would not appear until two years after Superman's debut, a central theme to his character — a dichotomy of science versus superpowers — was in place.
Although Lollardy can be said to have originated from interest in the writings of John Wycliffe, the Lollards had no central belief system and no official doctrine.
Although geographically part of Guangdong Province, the Macau Special Administrative Region is directly under the authority of the central government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing, which controls the foreign affairs and defence of Macau but otherwise grants the region " a high degree of authority.
Although the Basic Law states that the Macau SAR government may " when necessary " ask the central government to allow the garrison to assist in maintaining public order or disaster relief, Chief Executive Ho has said that, in keeping with the Basic Law the garrison will play no role in internal security.
Although mental illnesses are believed by some to be neurological disorders affecting the central nervous system, traditionally they are classified separately, and treated by psychiatrists.
Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.
Although seldom used in Britain and the United States, root parsley is very common in central and eastern European cuisine, where it is used in soups and stews.
Although the engineering education of the late 19th and early 20th century were scientifically founded, up until the early 20th century, research as such was not seen as a central activity of an Institute of Technology.
Although and banks
Although at present the majority of M & A advice is provided by full-service investment banks, recent years have seen a rise in the prominence of specialist M & A advisers, who only provide M & A advice ( and not financing ).
Although sluggish and shallow, the river sometimes overflows its low banks, forming temporary swamps and flooding villages.
Although foreign banks operate branches in Seychelles, the government owns the two local banks — the Development Bank of Seychelles, which mobilizes resources to fund development programs, and the Seychelles Saving Bank, a bank for savings and current accounts.
Although historically not designed or used as towpaths, acequia ditch banks also are popular recreational trails.
Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest has never functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as Constanța and Galați acting as the country's main ports.
Although taken by surprise, Edward's men resisted stoutly, beating back Somerset's attack among the hedges and banks.
Although the Eradicator's effects ( altering the DNA of all Kryptonian life-forms so that they would instantly die upon leaving the planet ) were felt immediately, the Destroyer's effects were possibly more significant: By the time the Kryptonian government admitted defeat and abolished the clone banks, a pro-clone rights terrorist faction known as Black Zero had started the Destroyer, a device which functioned as a giant nuclear gun, projecting massive streams of nuclear energy into the core of Krypton, intended to trigger an explosive chain reaction within Krypton's core almost immediately.
Although small shops and manufacturers had been built on the banks of the Willimantic before, this was the beginning of industrialized Willimantic.
Although nearby Madisonville, a settlement established along the stagecoach route on the Natchez Trace, had a race track, two banks, a wagon factory and at least one hotel, its residents gradually moved to the new town.
Although the town is mostly abandoned today, and is nearly a ghost town, during the early 1900s Fallis was a whistle-stop for several railroad lines, and was a thriving little community with stores, hotels, banks, lumber yards, and other businesses, as well as a city hall.
Although the community was affected by the Great Depression, both of its banks – the Menard National Bank and Bevans State Bank – remained open.
Although the last several decades have brought a higher percentage of visitor-oriented retail stores, the downtown still retains a U. S. post office, banks, restaurants, and a barber shop.
Although these principles have been applied in varying degrees by historical Islamic economies due to lack of Islamic practice, only in the late 20th century were a number of Islamic banks formed to apply these principles to private or semi-private commercial institutions within the Muslim community.
Although commercial traffic ceased, the navigation continued to derive income from water abstraction and from the sale of wood from the willows which grow along the banks.
Although most of the assumptions and expectations made by the Central Banks or Reserve Banks by countries ( and economies ) that by technically lowering the interest rate would produce the effect of increasing investments and consumptions, however, low interest rate by macro-economic policy is also risky and would also lead to the creation of massive economic bubble, when great amount of investments are poured into the real estate market and stock market, as what Japan experienced in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the large numbers of accounts of unpaid debts to the Japanese Banks and bankruptcy of these banks and caused stagflation to the local Japanese Economy ( Japan being the second largest economy at the time ), with exports becoming the last pillar for the growth of Japanese economy throughout the rest of 1990s and early 2000.
Although primarily dealing with the savings and loan crisis, CEBA also established a moratorium to March 1, 1988, on banking regulator actions to approve bank or affiliate securities activities, applied the affiliation restrictions of Glass-Steagall Sections 20 and 32 to all FDIC insured banks during the moratorium, and eliminated the “ nonbank bank ” loophole for new FDIC insured banks ( whether they took only deposits or made only commercial loans ) except industrial loan companies.
Although Boyd ’ s 1999 essay was directed at “ universal banking ” that permitted commercial banks to own equity interests in non-financial firms ( i. e., “ commercial firms ”), the essay was interpreted more broadly to mean that “ expanding bank powers, by, for example, allowing nonbank firms to affiliate with banks, prior to undertaking reforms limiting TBTF-like coverage for uninsured bank creditors is putting the ‘ cart before the horse .’”
Although he rejected this scholarship, Martin Mayer wrote in 1997 that since the late 1980s it had been “ clear ” that continuing the Glass-Steagall prohibitions was only “ permitting a handful of large investment houses and hedge funds to charge monopoly rents for their services without protecting corporate America, investors, or the banks .” Hyman Minsky, who disputed the benefits of “ universal banking ,” wrote in 1995 testimony prepared for Congress that “ repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act, in itself, would neither benefit nor harm the economy of the United States to any significant extent .” In 1974 Mayer had quoted Minsky as stating a 1971 presidential commission ( the “ Hunt Commission ”) was repeating the errors of history when it proposed relaxing Glass-Steagall and other legislation from the 1930s.
Although the market share of financial holding companies among the 25 largest securities firms had increased by 5. 7 percentage points from that held in 1999 before the GLBA became effective, all of the increase came from foreign banks increasing their U. S. securities operations.
Although Michel Barnier, European Union internal market Commissioner, proposed limits on capital requirements for banks that could have hindered the UK ringfencing proposal and indicated support for the French and German position against breaking up banking groups, in November 2011 he announced an “ expert commission ” would “ study the mandatory separation of risky investment banking activities from traditional retail lenders .”