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During the Achaemenid Persian Empire, around 600 BC the Persians first began to use the abacus.
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During and Achaemenid
During the Achaemenid period, Khwarezm was governed by Smerdis / Bardiya along with Bactriana, Carmania, and the other eastern provinces of the empire.
During the Achaemenid era, especially at the time of Cyrus the Great, the Persian imperial flag was square in shape, divided kite-like into four equal triangles alternating between two colors.
During the late Achaemenid era, adar — as the quintessence of the Yazata Adar — was incorporated in the Zoroastrian hierarchy of angels.
During and Persian
During the first invasion, Thrace, Macedon and the Aegean Islands were added to the Persian Empire, and Eretria was duly destroyed.
During this period, Athens and Sparta rose to a position of political eminence in Greece, and their rivalry in the aftermath of the Persian wars brought Greece into renewed internal conflict.
During this time, Jews have experienced slavery, anarchic and theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile ; in the Diasporas, they have been in contact with and have been influenced by ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment ( see Haskalah ) and the rise of nationalism, which would bear fruit in the form of a Jewish state in the Levant.
During the second Persian invasion of Greece ( 480-479 BC ) Megara fought alongside the Spartans and Athenians at crucial battles such as Salamis and Plataea.
During the war between the Scythians and the Persian Empire, the Scythians came to dominate the Neuri.
During the years 550 to 330 BC, coinciding with the sovereignty of the first Persian Empire over the Middle East area, especially the whole part of the Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of " Pars Sea " is widely found in the compiled written texts.
During the end of the fourth millennium BC, the southern part of the Persian Gulf was dominated by the Dilmun civilization.
During the 7th century the Sassanid Persian empire conquered the whole of the Persian Gulf, including southern and northern shores.
During his reign the Roman eastern frontier underwent extensive re-fortification, including the construction of Dara, a stronghold intended to counter the Persian fortress of Nisibis.
During their rule they extensively invited, and received, a steady stream of Persian scholars, poets, jurists, architects, and painters.
During this time he published Histoire de Nader Chah ( 1770 ), a French translation of a work originally written in Persian by Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi.
During his studies, he dedicated himself to mastering English — adding this language to the Persian, Turkish, Arabic and French, languages in which he was already fluent-so that he could translate the letters of ` Abdu ' l-Bahá and serve as his secretary.
During the first Persian invasion of Greece, he fought at the Battle of Marathon, and was possibly one of the 10 Athenian strategoi ( generals ) in that battle.
During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the pearling industry thrived in the relative calm at sea, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf.
During the Middle Ages, heliocentric models may have also been proposed by the Indian astronomer, Aryabhata, and by the Persian astronomers, Albumasar and Al-Sijzi.
* Middle East: During the Persian empire, Zoroaster, aka Zarathustra, founded Zoroastrianism, a dualistic philosophy.
* During the turmoil of the An Shi Rebellion, the Chinese seaport Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian raiders.
During the closing stages of the Iran-Iraq War the United States Navy began conducting operations in the Persian Gulf to protect US-flagged ships from attack by Iranian naval forces.
During the Persian invasion of 480 BC it manned the second largest Greek fleet ( 60 ships ), but took no active part in the war.
During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and significantly advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Roman, Chinese, Indian, Persian, Egyptian, North African, Greek and Byzantine civilizations.
During and Empire
During this persecution many bishops were exiled to the other ends of the Empire, ( e. g., St Hilary of Poitiers to the Eastern provinces ).
During Alexius II's reign, the Byzantine Empire was invaded by King Bela III losing Syrmia and Bosnia to the Kingdom of Hungary in AD 1181, later even Dalmatia was lost to the Venetians.
During his reign, Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, and the two states launched an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt.
* Mann, Horace, K. The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol III: The Popes During the Carolingian Empire, 858 – 891.
During his reign, Bayezid II consolidated the Ottoman Empire and thwarted a Safavid rebellion soon before abdicating his throne to his son, Selim I.
During the days of the Roman Empire, the settlement of Augusta Raurica was founded 10 or 20 kilometres upstream of present Basel, and a castle was built on the hill overlooking the river where the Basel Münster now stands.
During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete ( or opus caementicium ) was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice.
During most of the colonial period, Costa Rica was the southernmost province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, which was nominally part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( i. e., Mexico ), but which in practice operated as a largely autonomous entity within the Spanish Empire.
During his reign the Empire conquered Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia and Judaea, and began the conquest of Britain.
During the American Civil War ( 1861 – 1865 ), the Union feared that the seceded Confederate States of America ( CSA ) would plan a northerly attack from Canada, which was still owned by the British Empire and remained neutral in the war.
During the Roman Empire, legionaries were issued a pugio ( from the Latin pugnō, or “ fight ”), a double-edged iron thrusting dagger with a blade of 7-12 inches.
During his reign, he also set about creating the Second Mexican Empire ( headed by his choice of Maximilian I of Mexico, a member of the House of Habsburg ), to regain France's hold in the Americas and to achieve greatness for the ' Latin ' race.
During the rule of Henry VIII an Act of Parliament declared that ' this realm of England is an Empire ... governed by one Supreme Head and King having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial Crown of the same '.
During the Siege of Paris in 1871, the North German Confederation, supported by its allies from southern Germany, formed the German Empire with the proclamation of the Prussian king Wilhelm I as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, to the humiliation of the French, who ceased to resist only days later.
During the history of the Byzantine Empire, the Greek peninsula was occasionally invaded by the foreign peoples like Goths, Avars, Slavs, Normans, Franks and other Romance-speaking peoples who had betrayed the Crusades.
During the last years of the Russian Empire, in the early 20th century, many authors continued to write in the gothic fiction genre, including historian and historical fiction writer Alexander Valentinovich Amfiteatrov, Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev, who developed psychological characterization, symbolist Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov, Alexander Grin, Anton Pavlovich Chekhov and Aleksandr Ivanovich Kuprin.
During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological and scientific giant, receiving more Nobel Prizes in science than Britain, France, Russia and the United States combined.
During the Thirty Years ' War, George William tried to remain neutral between the Roman Catholic forces of the Holy Roman Empire and the Protestant principalities.
During the later years of the Roman Empire, the Germanic peoples of northern Europe grew in strength to rival the Empire itself, and repeated organized attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, a date which traditionally marks the end of the classical period, and the start of the middle ages.