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legislative and councils
* 1962 – Prince Rainier III of Monaco revises the principality's constitution, devolving some of his power to advisory and legislative councils.
The councillors ' participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils.
Power remained concentrated in the governor's hands ; weak legislative and executive councils made up of official appointees were created in 1906.
A first Constitution of Monaco was adopted in 1911 and a new one, awarded by Prince Rainier III on December 17, 1962, outlines legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government, which consist of several administrative offices and a number of councils.
Elections are held in Marxist-Leninist states for all positions within the legislative structure, municipal councils, national legislatures and presidencies.
They also supplemented the legislative councils, formed of noblemen, with new People's Councils, composed by the main guilds and by the chiefs of the People's Companies.
* December 7 – Rainier III, Prince of Monaco revises the principality's constitution, devolving some of his formerly autocratic power to several advisory and legislative councils.
The Local Government Act 1974 began the process of bringing urban, mixed, and rural councils into the same legislative framework.
A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law totally or partially, if requested by 500, 000 electors or five regional councils.
A four-year term for president was stipulated, in addition to legislative councils being responsible for overseeing the functions of the state.
* Within each county, a quarter section of land shall be held in trust for the establishment of seats of justice therein, and also as many quarter-sections as the said legislative councils may deem proper for the permanent endowment of schools
The Gambia received its own executive and legislative councils in 1901 and gradually progressed toward self-government.
Bold cities indicate that the city was the seat of a parlement or conseils souverains ( sovereign councils ), which were legislative and judicial bodies.
It is also the term for a council to early Russian rulers ( Boyar Duma ), as well as for city councils in Imperial Russia (' Municipal dumas '), and city and regional legislative bodies in the Russian Federation.
* The Chamber of Quarantia Civil Vecchia: originally a single 40-man-council which wielded substantial political and legislative power, the Quarantia was during the course of the 15th century divided into 3 separate councils.
Elections to the 20 county councils ( landsting ) and 290 municipal assemblies ( kommunfullmäktige ) – all using roughly the same electoral system – are held concurrently with the legislative elections on the second Sunday in September ( with effect from 2014 ; until 2010 they had been held on the third Sunday in September ).
For the names of the institutions, see List of legislative and executive councils of the Cantons of Switzerland.
Six Indian States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu-Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh have Bicameral Legislatures, these are called legislative councils ( Vidhan Parishad ), one third of who get elected every 6 years, there are graduate constituencies ( members elected exclusively by graduates ), teachers constituencies ( members elected exclusively by teachers ), municipal constituencies ( members elected exclusively by Mayors and council members of the city Governments ). From 1956 to 1958 the Andhra Pradesh Legislature was Unicameral and from 1958 when the Council was formed, it became bicameral and continued until 1 June 1985 when the Legislative Council was abolished. This continued until March 2007 when the Legislative Council was reestablished and elections were held for its seats.
As of now, the legislative powers of county councils are quite reduced, but there are plans for more decentralization.
The Cantonal Council, which included the presiding government councils and the Cantonal Court President, and the eleven-member Executive Council formed the legislative and executive branches.
While Gandhi was in prison, Rajaji led the group of " No-Changers ", individuals against contesting elections for the Imperial Legislative Council and other provincial legislative councils, in opposition to the " Pro-changers " who advocated council entry.
Also, vote pairing is a routine practice in legislative bodies, city councils, etc.
Traditionally, members of the legislative councils of the states were also styled The Honourable for the duration of their terms.
* Members of Commonwealth legislative councils ( or senates ) where the legislature is bicameral ; and

legislative and both
The election gave Democrats full control of the United States Congress, the first time one party controlled both the executive and legislative branches since Democrats held the 95th United States Congress during the Jimmy Carter presidency in the late 1970s.
Canadian federal statutes must use the terminology of both the common law and civil law for those matters ; this is referred to as legislative bijuralism.
The Combo law was supported by both major parties at the time ( PLN and PUSC ) as well as by President Rodriguez, but the first of three required legislative votes to approve it provoked the largest protest demonstrations the country had seen since 1970.
However, in most areas the ordinary legislative procedure applies meaning both Council and Parliament share legislative and budgetary powers equally, meaning both have to agree for a proposal to pass.
The vast majority of laws are now subject to the ordinary legislative procedure, which works on the principle that consent from both the Council and Parliament are required before a law may be adopted.
Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament.
In May 1999, Azali decreed a constitution that gave him both executive and legislative powers.
Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the islands ' parliament.
It had both executive oversight authority, and in practice, binding legislative authority, as it dictated the party platform.
Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament.
The Manifesto supported the creation of universal suffrage for both men and women ( the latter being realized only partly in late 1925, with all opposition parties banned or disbanded ); proportional representation on a regional basis ; government representation through a corporatist system of " National Councils " of experts, selected from professionals and tradespeople, elected to represent and hold legislative power over their respective areas, including labour, industry, transportation, public health, communications, etc.
Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament.
The constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty in an extensive catalogue of human rights and divides powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
This law actually violated the Enabling Act, which specifically protected the existence of both legislative chambers.
However, in many jurisdictions, the number of jurors is often reduced to a lesser number ( such as five or six ) by legislative enactment, or by agreement of both sides.
At a regional level, groups of states can create political and legal bodies with sometimes complicated patchworks of overlapping provisions detailing the jurisdictional relationships between the member states and providing for some degree of harmonization between their national legislative and judicial functions, for example, the European Union and African Union both have the potential to become federated states although the political barriers to such unification in the face of entrenched nationalism will be very difficult to overcome.
After taking power, Rajoelina dissolved both the National Assembly and the Senate, leaving the nation without a constitutional legislative body.
According to professor A. V. Dicey in An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, the essential features of a federal constitution are: a ) A written supreme constitution in order to prevent disputes between the jurisdictions of the Federal and State authorities ; b ) A distribution of power between the Federal and State governments and c ) A Supreme Court vested with the power to interpret the Constitution and enforce the law of the land remaining independent of both the executive and legislative branches.
After both criteria are satisfied the court additionally checks whether formalities related to the legislative requirements are followed and only then makes decision.
As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers.
Although the Lords are still involved in the legislative process and the Prime Minister must still guide legislation through both Houses, the Lords no longer have the power to veto or even delay enactment of legislation passed by the Commons.
Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland.

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