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Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives * f, * þ, * s, * h, * hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became respectively the fricatives * b, * d, * z, * g, * gʷ.
Some Related Sentences
Verner's and law
( In Proto-Germanic, voiced fricatives were allophones of their corresponding voiced plosives when they occurred between vowels, semivowels and liquids, so we write them here as * b, * d, * g. But the situations where Verner's law applied resulted in fricatives in these very circumstances, so we understand these phonemes as fricatives in this context.
Notable among these are Grimm's law and Verner's law in Proto-Germanic, loss of prevocalic * p-in Proto-Celtic, reduction to h of prevocalic * s-in Proto-Greek, Brugmann's law and Bartholomae's law in Proto-Indo-Iranian, Grassmann's law independently in both Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian, and Winter's law and Hirt's law in Balto-Slavic.
In Proto-Germanic consonant alternations known as grammatischer Wechsel developed, as a result of Verner's law.
The inflectional type is usually accepted to reach back into Proto-Indo-European times, with an exact correspondence of Sanskrit and Old Norse ylgr, both meaning " she-wolf ", first described by Karl Verner in 1877 ( see Verner's law ).
* * đ (/ ð /) was derived by Grimm's law from PIE * dʰ or by Verner's law ( i. e. when immediately following an unstressed syllable ) from PIE * t.
In historical linguistics, the German term grammatischer Wechsel (" grammatical alternation ") refers to the effects of Verner's law when viewed synchronically within the paradigm of a Germanic verb.
Note that this table lists only the outcome of word-internal consonants, since word-initial consonants were generally not affected by Verner's law.
Verner's law is a famous example of the Neogrammarian hypothesis, as it resolved an apparent exception to Grimm's law.
It is also known as the " second Germanic " consonant shift to distinguish it from the "( first ) Germanic consonant shift " as defined by Grimm's law, and its refinement, Verner's law.
( G = Grimm's law ; V = Verner's law ) Note that the pairs of words used to illustrate sound shifts must be cognates ; they need not be semantic equivalents.
Verner's and by
While Bumpus was put off by Verner's request of the prohibitively high salary of $ 175 a month and was not impressed with the man's credentials, he was interested in Benga.
Verner's and Karl
In his 1964 presidential address to the Linguistic Society of America, American linguist Charles Hockett considered Syntactic Structures one of " only four major breakthroughs in modern linguistics ", alongside Sir William Jones's address to the Asiatic Society in 1786, Karl Verner's Eine Ausnahme der ersten Lautverschiebung in 1875 and Ferdinand de Saussure's Cours de Linguistique Générale in 1916.
Verner's and Verner
When Verner first moved to the United States, the male member of a popular ice-skating pair had the surname Vernon ; Americans continually mistook Verner's last name to be the same as the popular ice skater, and eventually the magician became fed up with correcting people and simply adopted " Vernon " as well.
Verner's and sound
In the bottom row, for each pair, the sound on the right represents the sound changed according to Verner's Law.
Verner's and s
There is a spinoff from Verner's Law: the rule accounts also for PGmc * z as the development of PIE * s in some words.
Since this * z changed to * r in the Scandinavian languages and in West Germanic ( German, Dutch, English, Frisian ), Verner's Law resulted in alternation of * s and * r in some inflectional paradigms, known as grammatischer Wechsel.
Verner's and underwent
The law affects the various series of stops in Proto-Indo-European that underwent Grimm's and Verner's law.
Verner's and .
* Verner's full official title was Minister of Canadian Heritage and Status of Women and Minister for la Francophonie.
Verner's win in the 2006 election, was one of the first ever Quebec victories for the Conservative Party of Canada.
In Verner's view, Shepseskare was a son of Sahure who attempted to continue his family's royal line ; hence, the close proximity of his pyramid next to Sahure's.
law and stated
As I have repeatedly stated, this provision is much more restrictive than the general law, popularly known as the Buy American Act.
Wheaton stated that the public law was essentially `` limited to the civilized and Christian peoples of Europe or to those of European origin ''.
If a litigant chooses to enforce a Federal right in a State court, he cannot be heard to object if he is treated exactly as are plaintiffs who press like claims arising under State law with regard to the form in which the claim must be stated -- the particularity, for instance, with which a cause of action must be described.
But the form in which the claim must be stated need not be different from what the State exacts in the enforcement of like obligations created by it, so long as a requirement does not add to, or diminish, the right as defined by Federal law, nor burden the realization of this right in the actualities of litigation ''.
Adventurous experiences create psychological and physiological arousal, which can be interpreted as negative ( e. g. fear ) or positive ( e. g. flow ), and which can be detrimental as stated by the Yerkes-Dodson law.
It may be applied, as it is stated in article 1 of the convention in case of: offenses against penal law ; acts which, whether or not they are offenses, may or do jeopardize the safety of the aircraft or of persons or property therein or which jeopardize good order and discipline on board.
4655 into law on October 31, 1998, which instituted a policy of " regime change " against Iraq, though it explicitly stated it did not provide for direct intervention on the part of American military forces.
Its use is documented at least as far back as the 14th century when a law passed in Huesca in 1349 stated that Item nuyl corridor nonsia usado que faga mercadería ninguna que compre nin venda entre ningunas personas, faulando en algaravia nin en abraych nin en basquenç: et qui lo fara pague por coto XXX sol — essentially penalizing the use of Arabic, Hebrew or Vascuence ( Basque ) with a fine of 30 sols.
He stated that " the fact that my name and address along with my picture can appear on the front of the papers before the so-called ' victim ' has even signed a statement proves that anonymity for rape defendants is a must and that the law must be changed.
Gauss also made important contributions to number theory with his 1801 book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae ( Latin, Arithmetical Investigations ), which, among things, introduced the symbol ≡ for congruence and used it in a clean presentation of modular arithmetic, contained the first two proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity, developed the theories of binary and ternary quadratic forms, stated the class number problem for them, and showed that a regular heptadecagon ( 17-sided polygon ) can be constructed with straightedge and compass.
Insolvency proceedings under state law, the study stated, are currently faster, less expensive, and more private, with some states not even requiring court filings.
As stated in the U. S. Code, the Commandant shall preside over the Headquarters, Marine Corps, transmit the plans and recommendations of the Headquarters, Marine Corps, to the Secretary and advise the Secretary with regard to such plans and recommendations, after approval of the plans or recommendations of the Headquarters, Marine Corps, by the Secretary, act as the agent of the Secretary in carrying them into effect, exercise supervision, consistent with the authority assigned to commanders of unified or specified combatant commands under chapter 6 of this title, over such of the members and organizations of the Marine Corps and the Navy as the Secretary determines, perform the duties prescribed for him by section 171 of this title and other provisions of law and perform such other military duties, not otherwise assigned by law, as are assigned to him by the President, the Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary of the Navy.
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb developed the law of electrostatic attraction in 1785 as an outgrowth of his attempt to investigate the law of electrical repulsions as stated by Joseph Priestley in England.
# The Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich ( August 1, 1934 ) prescribed that upon the death of the incumbent president, that office would be merged with the office of the chancellor, and that the competencies of the former should be transferred to the " Führer und Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler ", as the law stated.
However, there were those who did not believe this, for instance the Fransiscan friar Roger Bacon ( c. 1214-1294 ) stated that books falsely claiming to be by ancient authors " ought to be prohibited by law ".
After the introduction of Soviet-style communism to Poland, the 1948 law stated that the age of consent for all sexual acts, homosexual or heterosexual, was 15.
This work encompasses the full range of Talmudic law ; it is organized and reformulated in a logical system — in 14 books, 83 sections and 1000 chapters — with each Halakha stated clearly.
In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours.
The resolution stated " the stipulations contained in the declarations are recognized as fundamental laws of State, and no law, regulation or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.
Section 1 of the French law of 1791 stated, " All new discoveries are the property of the author ; to assure the inventor the property and temporary enjoyment of his discovery, there shall be delivered to him a patent for five, ten or fifteen years.
The stated objective of most intellectual property law ( with the exception of trademarks ) is to " Promote progress.