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Contras and U
* 1987 – American engineer Ben Linder is killed in an ambush by U. S .- funded Contras in northern Nicaragua.
Senator John Kerry's 1988 Committee on Foreign Relations report on Contra drug links concluded that " senior U. S. policy makers were not immune to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contras ' funding problems.
* U. S. Policy Towards the Contras from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
Such leftist reforms damaged U. S. economic interests in the country, gaining hostility from the U. S .' s governing Reagan administration, who funded a right wing militia, the Contras, to overthrow Ortega's government.
Some U. S. officials also hoped that the arms sales would secure the release of hostages and allow U. S. intelligence agencies to fund the Nicaraguan Contras.
Direct funding of the Contras insurgency had been made illegal through the Boland Amendment, the name given to three U. S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984 aimed at limiting US government assistance to the Contras militants.
In 1982, legislation was enacted in the U. S. to prohibit further direct aid to the Contras.
The ICJ held that the U. S. had violated international law by supporting the Contras in their rebellion against the Nicaraguan government and by mining Nicaragua's harbors.
In Statement 9, the Court stated that the U. S. encouraged human rights violations by the Contras by the manual entitled Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare.
After the initiation of full-scale U. S. military involvement in the Nicaraguan conflict the CDS was empowered to enforce wartime bans on political assembly and association with other political parties ( i. e. parties associated with the " Contras ").
This meant the US could no longer openly support the Contras with U. S. government funds.
After the U. S. Congress prohibited federal funding of the Contras in 1983, the Reagan administration continued to back the Contras by raising money from foreign allies and covertly selling arms to Iran ( then engaged in a vicious war with Iraq ), and channelling the proceeds to the Contras ( see the Iran-Contra Affair ).
Senator John Kerry's 1988 U. S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations report on links between the Contras and drug imports to the US concluded that " senior U. S. policy makers were not immune to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contras ' funding problems.
U. S. funding of the Contras by appropriated funds spent by intelligence agencies had been prohibited by the Boland Amendment.
In the dirtiest of Latin America ’ s dirty wars, their faith in America ’ s mission justified atrocities in the name of liberty .” Grandin examined the behaviour of the U. S. backed-contras and found evidence that it was particularly inhumane and vicious: " In Nicaragua, the U. S .- backed Contras decapitated, castrated, and otherwise mutilated civilians and foreign aid workers.

Contras and .
The contras ( some references use the capitalized form, " Contras ") is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing the Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua that were active from 1979 through to the early 1990s.
The Reagan administration's support for the Contras continued to stir controversy well into the 1990s.
Edgar Chamorro, a former Contra and member of the FDN's political directorate who later became a critic of the Contras, stated that during his time with the Contras, he frequently received reports about atrocities committed by Contra troops against civilians and against Sandinista prisoners: " As time went on, I became more and more troubled by the frequent reports I received of atrocities committed by our troops against civilians and against Sandinista prisoners.
The number of murders or unlawful killings the Contras were involved in, was estimated at around 500.
" Earlier, in December 1984, the Council on Hemispheric Affairs had issued a report condemning the Contras and the United States government as being among the worst human rights violators in Latin America: " The CIA directed forces are among the worst human rights violators in Latin America, responsible for systematic brutality against a civilian population.
The Contras have killed, tortured, raped, mutilated and abducted hundreds of civilians they suspect of sympathizing with the Sandinistas.
Similarly, Human Rights Watch pointed out that " the Contras systematically engage in violent abuses ... so prevalent that these may be said to be their principal means of waging war " in a 1989 report.
Nevertheless, the Contras remained tenuously encamped within Honduras and weren't able to hold Nicaraguan territory.
Political opposition groups were splintered and the Contras began to experience defections, although United States aid maintained them as a viable military force.
* Bermudez, Enrique, " The Contras ' Valley Forge: How I View the Nicaraguan Crisis ", Policy Review magazine, The Heritage Foundation, Summer 1988.
Packaging the Contras: A Case of CIA Disinformation.
With the Contras: A Reporter in the Wilds of Nicaragua.
Everybody Had His Own Gringo: The CIA and the Contras.
( 1990 ) The Contras, 1980 – 1989: A Special Kind of Politics.
* Persons, David E. ( 1987 ) A Study of the History and Origins of the Nicaraguan Contras.
Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion, Seven Stories Press.
*" The Contras ' Valley Forge: How I View the Nicaragua Crisis ", by Enrique Bermúdez ( with Michael Johns ), Policy Review magazine, Summer 1988.

Contras and from
Large modifications to the plan were devised by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Council in late 1985, in which a portion of the proceeds from the weapon sales was diverted to fund anti-Sandinista and anti-communist rebels, or Contras, in Nicaragua.
Daniel Ortega of the Marxist-Leninist movement called the Sandinista National Liberation Front seized power in Nicaragua in 1979 and faced armed opposition from the Contras supported by the United States.
The first challenge to the powerful new army came from the Contras, groups of Somoza's National Guard who had fled to Honduras organized and funded by CIA elements involved in cocaine trafficking in Central America.
Oliver North supposedly used this bank during the Iran-Contra scandal by funneling money from his shell organization, the " National Endowment for the Preservation of Liberty ", through Palmer National Bank to the Contras.
In August 1989, the month that campaigning began, the Contras redeployed 8, 000 troops into Nicaragua, after a funding boost from Washington, becoming in effect the armed wing of the UNO, carrying out a violent campaign of intimidation.
A 1983 report from the same source documented allegations of human rights violations against the Miskito Indians, which were alleged to have taken place after opposition forces ( the Contras ) infiltrated a Miskito village in order to launch attacks against government soldiers, and as part of a subsequent forced relocation program.
During the 1980s Argüello briefly fought with the Contras in his native Nicaragua, but after a few months in the jungle he retired from the war.
In Nicaragua, pressure from the Contras led the Sandinstas to end the State of Emergency, and they subsequently lost the 1990 elections.
U. S. funding for the Contras, who opposed the Sandinista government of Nicaragua, was obtained from covert sources.
This was a plan intended to promote democracy and peace on the Central American isthmus during a time of great turmoil: leftist guerrillas were fighting against the governments in El Salvador and Guatemala, which were backed by the United States under the auspices of the Cold War ; the Contras, supported by the United States, were fighting an insurgency against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua ; Honduras, only recently wresting political power from its military, was caught in the middle as a base for U. S. military forces ; and on Costa Rica's other border, Panama faced the oppression of Manuel Noriega's military dictatorship.
In 1982 the CIA, with assistance from the Argentine national intelligence agency, organized and financed right-wing paramilitaries in Nicaragua, known as the Contras.
He had also given aid to foreign groups such as the Bosnian Muslims in the Yugoslav Wars, as well as the Nicaraguan Contras, providing " a million dollars per month from May to December 1984.
In 2001 Joan Kruckewitt, an American journalist who lived in Nicaragua from 1983 to 1991 and covered the war between the Sandinistas and the Contras for ABC Radio wrote a book The Death of Ben Linder ( Seven Stories Press 2001 ) giving a more sympathetic portrait of Linder's life, work, and death.
Much of the game's popularity came from its two-player simultaneous gameplay, which was an uncommon feature in video games at the time of Contras release.
He once again began military operations in southern Nicaragua, loosely federated with northern forces which, composed mostly from highly paid former National Guard members and some Miskito Indians, were collectively referred to as the Contras.
The funding of the Contras in Nicaragua led to the Iran-Contra Affair, while overt support led to a ruling from the International Court of Justice against the United States in Nicaragua v. United States.
In one mishap, she transposed the digits of a Swiss bank account number, resulting in a contribution from the Sultan of Brunei to the Contras being lost.
Ronald Reagan is credited with increasing spending on national defense and diplomacy which contributed to the end of the Cold War, deploying U. S. Pershing II missiles in West Germany in response to the Soviet stationing of SS-20 missiles near Europe, negotiating the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty ( INF ) to substantially reduce nuclear arms and initiating negotiations with the Soviet Union for the treaty that would later be known as START I, proposing the Strategic Defense Initiative, a controversial plan to develop a missile defense system, re-appointing monetarists Paul Volcker and ( later ) Alan Greenspan to be chairmen of the Federal Reserve, ending the high inflation that damaged the economy under his predecessors Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford, lowering tax rates significantly ( under Reagan, the top personal tax bracket dropped from 70 % to 28 % in 7 years ) and leading a major reform of the tax system, providing arms and other support to anti-communist groups such as the Contras and the mujahideen, selling arms to foreign allies such as Taiwan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq ( see Iran – Iraq War ), greatly escalating the " war on drugs " with his policies and Nancy Reagan's " Just Say No " campaign, ordering the April 14, 1986 bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi in retaliation for an April 5 bombing of a West Berlin nightclub frequented by U. S. servicemen, in which the Libyan government was deemed complicit, and signing the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which compensated victims of the Japanese American Internment during World War II.

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