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According to economists Donald Deere ( Texas A & M ), Kevin Murphy ( University of Chicago ), and Finis Welch ( Texas A & M ), Card and Krueger's conclusions are contradicted by " common sense and past research ".
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According and economists
According to a 1978 article in the American Economic Review, 90 percent of the economists surveyed agreed that the minimum wage increases unemployment among low-skilled workers.
According to some economists, manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-consuming.
According to reports by the mayor and economists of the day who studied the experiment, the scrip was readily accepted by local merchants and the local population.
According to the United States Department of Labor, there were around 15, 000 non-academic economists in the United States in 2008, with a median salary of roughly $ 83, 000, and with the top ten percent earning more than $ 147, 040 annually.
According to some economists such as Jeffrey Sachs, however, the current divide between the developed and developing world is largely a phenomenon of the 20th century.
According to some economists, for example Hernando de Soto, this is a major barrier to development in those countries-entrepreneurs do not dare take risks and cannot get credit because they hold no collateral and may burden families for generations to come.
According to the economists Howell and Diallo ( 2007 ), neoliberal policies have contributed to a U. S. economy in which 30 % of workers earn low wages ( less than two-thirds the median wage for full-time workers ), and 35 % of the labor force is underemployed ; only 40 % of the working-age population in the U. S. is adequately employed.
According to Texas Republican Congressman Dr. Ron Paul in his " A Tribute to the Late Harry Browne " which was read into the Congressional Record in 2006, " How You Can Profit From the Coming Devaluation is generally recognized as the founding document of the hard money movement, which combined the insights of the Austrian economists with a practical investment strategy.
According to economists such as Joseph Schumpeter and Nikolai Kondratieff the crash was merely a historical event in the continuing process known as economic cycles.
According to Neo-Classical economists the Labour theory of value could not explain fluctuating values for different kinds of labour, nor did it explain how found goods could be more valuable than extracted goods.
According to its website, the Club of Rome is composed of " scientists, economists, businessmen, international high civil servants, heads of state and former heads of state from all five continents who are convinced that the future of humankind is not determined once and for all and that each human being can contribute to the improvement of our societies.
According to Terry Peach, economists interpreting Ricardo as having a more flexible view of wages include Haney ( 1924 ), J. R. Hicks ( 1973 ), Frank Knight ( 1935 ), Ramsay ( 1836 ), George Stigler ( 1952 ), and Paul Samuelson ( 1979 ).
According to critical realist economists, the central aim of economic theory is to provide explanations in terms of hidden generative structures.
According to laissez-faire economists such as Friedrich von Hayek, massive waves of unemployment, as in economic recessions and depressions, can be traced back to state intervention in the market, which effectively blocks the natural balance in means of production achieved through Say's law.
According to Keynes, the implication of Say's " law " is that a free-market economy is always at what the Keynesian economists call full employment ; see also Walras ' law.
According to some economists, this paradox has since been explained as due to the fact that when a country produces " more than two goods, the abundance of capital relative to labor does not imply that the capital intensity of its exports should exceed that of imports.
According to Leontief, too many economists were reluctant to " get their hands dirty " by working with raw empirical facts.
According to the classical economists, lower interest rates would lead to increased investment spending and demand would remain constant.
" According to Keynesian economist, Paul Krugman, the work of Friedman and Schwartz became dominant among mainstream economists by the 1980s but should be reconsidered in light of Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s.
According to the labour theory of value ( as used by the classical economists ), under capitalism, workers never keep all of the wealth they create, as some of it goes to the profit of capitalists.
According to mainstream economists, only the final purchase of goods and services by individuals constitutes consumption, while other types of expenditure — in particular, fixed investment, intermediate consumption, and government spending — are placed in separate categories.
According to a review by Martin Bronfenbrenner in The Journal of Political Economy, about half of the book was devoted to dialectical philosophy, " with a strong epistemological stress ", with the other half devoted to discussions of economic and general history, anthropology and sociology, and actual economics, including a surprisingly large helping of business administration – Bronfenbrenner noted that LaRouche seemed to have " more private-business experience than the great majority of academic economists ", including a familiarity with the way speculative overcapitalization, operating at the borders of white-collar crime, creates " fictitious capitals " that later do not match their actual earning power.
According to Ackoff " f-Laws are truths about organizations that we might wish to deny or ignore – simple and more reliable guides to managers ' everyday behavior than the complex truths proposed by scientists, economists, sociologists, politicians and philosophers ".
According and Donald
According to the Babylonian Chronicles, published by Donald Wiseman in 1956, it was established that Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem the first time on 2 Adar ( 16 March ) 597 BC.
According to Barks, this period of his life would later influence his best known fictional characters: Walt Disney's Donald Duck and his own Scrooge McDuck.
According to Donald R. Hopkins ( 2002 ), Madhav included a special chapter on smallpox ( masūrikā ) and described the method of inoculation to protect against smallpox.
According to Donald Morris in this mourning period Shaka ordered that no crops should be planted during the following year, no milk ( the basis of the Zulu diet at the time ) was to be used, and any woman who became pregnant was to be killed along with her husband.
According to author Donald M. Bartlett, Richard Nixon would do whatever was necessary to prevent another Hughes-Nixon family embarrassment.
According to Donald Miller " the economic disruption would have been far greater had Bomber Command targeted the suburban areas where most of Dresden's manufacturing might was concentrated ".
According to the journalist Paul Routledge, Donald Bruce, a former MP and Parliamentary Private Secretary and adviser to Bevan, had told him that Bevan's shift on the disarmament issue was the result of discussions with the Soviet government where they advised him to push for British retention of nuclear weapons so they could possibly be used as a bargaining chip in negotiations with the United States.
According to Donald Neff, " The immediate cause " of the First Intifada came on 8 December 1987, " when an Israeli army tank transporter ran into a group of Palestinians from Jabalya refugee camp in Gaza Strip, killing four and injuring seven.
According to Donald Spoto in Madcap: The Life of Preston Sturges, Sturges " invariably paraded on set with a colorful beret or a felt cap with a feather protruding, a white cashmere scarf blowing gaily round his neck and a print shirt in loud hues ... the reason for the peculiar outfits, he told visitors, was that they facilitated crew members finding him amid the crowds of actors, technicians, and the public.
According to the former Time correspondent to Jerusalem, Donald Neff, the decisive calculation was as follows: Force had to be used to demonstrate to the Arabs that Israel was in the Middle East to stay, Ben Gurion believed, and to that end he felt strongly that his retaliatory policy had to be continued. Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon gave the order, in coordination with Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion.
According to the story Whatever Happened to Scrooge McDuck ?, Rockerduck ( as well as Flintheart Glomgold ) was made bankrupt by Donald Duck, after the latter had inherited Scrooge's fortune and turned it into a charity company.
According to the book Bright Boulevards, Bold Dreams, by Donald Bogle, McDaniel happily informed gossip columnist Hedda Hopper in 1945 that she was pregnant.
According to Donald Noel, a sociologist who developed a theory on the origin of ethnic stratification, ethnic stratification is a " system of stratification wherein some relatively fixed group membership ( e. g., race, religion, or nationality ) is utilized as a major criterion for assigning social positions ".
According to Donald Noel, ethnic stratification will emerge only when specific ethnic groups are brought into contact with one another, and only when those groups are characterized by a high degree of ethnocentrism, competition, and differential power.
According to the musicologist Donald Burrows, much of the text is so allusive as to be largely incomprehensible to those ignorant of the biblical accounts.
" According to Donald D. Horward, " Masséna's military career was equaled by few commanders in European history.
According to Donald Richie, the length of time of the shots of the wife and of the bandit are the same when the bandit is barbarically crazy and the wife is hysterically crazy.
" According to an unnamed Pentagon source quoted by Hersh, the OSP " was created in order to find evidence of what Wolfowitz and his boss, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, believed to be true — that Saddam Hussein had close ties to Al Qaeda, and that Iraq had an enormous arsenal of chemical, biological, and possibly even nuclear weapons that threatened the region and, potentially, the United States.
" According to the British newspaper The Guardian, "... the October 1970 plot against Chile's President-elect Salvador Allende ... was the direct result of a plea for action a month earlier by Donald Kendall, chairman of PepsiCo, in two telephone calls to the company's former lawyer, President Richard Nixon.
According to author William Anderson, Muir exemplified " the archetype of our oneness with the earth ", while biographer Donald Worster says he believed his mission was "... saving the American soul from total surrender to materialism.
According to Dr. Donald N. Wilber, who was involved in the plot to remove Mossadegh from power, in early August, Iranian CIA operatives pretending to be socialists and nationalists threatened Muslim leaders with " savage punishment if they opposed Mossadegh ," thereby giving the impression that Mossadegh was cracking down on dissent, and stirring anti-Mossadegh sentiments within the religious community.
According to Donald Routledge Hill, al-Jazari described several early mechanical controls, including " a large metal door, a combination lock and a lock with four bolts.