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Justinian also tried to find new routes for the eastern trade, which was suffering badly from the wars with the Persians.
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Justinian and also
He had also sampled various special fields of learning, being unable to miss some study of divinity, Justinian ( law ), and Galen ( medicine ).
The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use.
Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles built by Constantine with a new church under the same dedication.
Justinian was also concerned with other aspects of the city's built environment, legislating against the abuse of laws prohibiting building within of the sea front, in order to protect the view.
However, the social fabric of Constantinople was also damaged by the onset of Plague of Justinian between 541 – 542 AD.
During his reign Justinian also subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before.
Justinian is considered a saint amongst Orthodox Christians, and is also commemorated by some Lutheran Churches.
Justinian also rebuilt the Church of Hagia Sophia ( which cost 20, 000 pounds of gold ), the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots.
By degrees, however, Justinian came to understand that the formula at issue not only appeared orthodox, but might also serve as a conciliatory measure toward the Monophysites, and he made a vain attempt to do this in the religious conference with the followers of Severus of Antioch, in 533.
Justinian also interfered in the internal affairs of the synagogue., and he encouraged the Jews to use the Greek Septuagint in their synagogues in Constantinople.
Justinian also strengthened the borders of the Empire from Africa to the East through the construction of fortifications, and ensured Constantinople of its water supply through construction of underground cisterns ( see Basilica Cistern ).
Enraged, Emperor Justinian II dispatched his magistrianus, also named Sergius, to Rome to arrest bishop John of Portus, the chief papal legate to the Third Council of Constantinople and Boniface, the papal counselor.
Already weakened by the Slavic invasions at the end of the 6th century, which ruined the agrarian economy of Macedonia and probably also by the Plague of Justinian in 547, the city was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake around 619, from which it never recovered.
Emperor Justinian I also created the offices of quaesitor, a judicial and police official for Constantinople, and the quaestor exercitus, a short-lived joint military-administrative post covering the border of the lower Danube.
Roman law as preserved in the codes of Justinian and in the Basilica remained the basis of legal practice in Greece and in the courts of the Eastern Orthodox Church even after the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the conquest by the Turks, and also formed the basis for much of the Fetha Negest, which remained in force in Ethiopia until 1931.
Biovar Antiqua is thought to correspond to the Plague of Justinian ; it is not known whether this biovar also corresponds to earlier or smaller epidemics of bubonic plague, or whether these were even truly bubonic plague.
It is also sometimes referred to as the Code of Justinian, although this name belongs more properly to the part titled Codex.
Consciously desiring to emulate Emperor Justinian I ( r. 527 – 565 ), Basil also initiated an extensive building program in Constantinople, crowned by the construction of the Nea Ekklesia cathedral.
This was linked to Justinian ’ s decision to unify the office of consul with that of emperor thus making the Emperor the head of state not only de facto but also de jure.
Probably also the property of the Platonist school, which in the time of Proclus was valued at more than 1000 gold pieces, was confiscated ; at least, Justinian deprived the physicians and teachers of the liberal arts of the provision-money which had been assigned to them by previous emperors, and confiscated funds which the citizens had provided for spectacles and other civic purposes.
The synthetic culture with Hellenistic Thracian, Roman, as well as eastern — Armenian, Syrian, Persian — traits that developed around Odessus in the 6th century under Justinian I, may have influenced the Pliska-Preslav culture of the First Bulgarian Empire, ostensibly in architecture and plastic decorative arts, but possibly also in literature, including Cyrillic scholarship.
Most likely Dionysius was also of local Thraco-Roman origin, like Vitalian's family to whom he was related, and to the rest of the Scythian Monks and other Thraco-Roman personalities of the era ( Justin I, Justinian, Flavius Aetius, etc.
He was also the author of rhetorical exercises on philosophical themes ; of a Quadrivium ( arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy ), valuable for the history of music and astronomy in the Middle Ages ; a general sketch of Aristotelian philosophy ; a paraphrase of the speeches and letters of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite ; poems, including an autobiography ; and a description of the square of the Augustaeum, and the column erected by Justinian in the church of Hagia Sophia to commemorate his victories over the Persians.
Justinian had given military authority to the governors of individual provinces plagued by brigandage in Asia Minor, but more importantly, he had also created the exceptional combined military-civilian circumscription of the quaestura exercitus and abolished the civilian Diocese of Egypt, putting a dux with combined authority at the head of each of its old provinces.
Justinian and tried
Justinian, who continued this policy, tried to impose religious unity on his subjects by forcing them to accept doctrinal compromises that might appeal to all parties, a policy which proved unsuccessful as he satisfied none of them.
But in the condemnation of the Three Chapters Justinian tried to satisfy both the East and the West, but succeeded in satisfying neither.
For three days, Justinian tried to convince the citizens of Constantinople to open the gates, but to no avail.
When Justinian, towards the close of his life, tried to raise the sect of the Aphthartodocetae to the rank of orthodoxy, and determined to expel Eutychius for his opposition, the able lawyer-ecclesiastic of Antioch, who had already distinguished himself by his great edition of the canons, was chosen to carry out the imperial will.
For three days, Justinian tried to convince the citizens of Constantinople to open the gates, but to no avail.
Another circumstance which renders the work of Gaius more interesting to the historical student than that of Justinian, is that Gaius lived at a time when actions were tried by the system of formulae, or formal directions given by the praetor before whom the case first came, to the judex to whom he referred it.
From his enthronement to his death, as Mihai Urzică writes, " faced with the adversities to which the Church was subjected, Patriarch Justinian proved himself an able diplomat and tried, as much as he could, to withstand the attacks launched against the house of the Lord.
The preparations for the operation were carried out in absolute secrecy, while Justinian tried to secure the neutrality of the Franks by gifts of gold.
Justinian and find
Justinian and new
Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to replace it with a new and incomparable St Sophia.
* 532 – Byzantine Emperor Justinian I orders the building of a new Orthodox Christian basilica in Constantinople – the Hagia Sophia.
Emperor Justinian I ensured that his new structure would not be burned down, like its predecessors, by commissioning architects that would build the church mainly out of stone, rather than wood, “ He compacted it of baked brick and mortar, and in many places bound it together with iron, but made no use of wood, so that the church should no longer prove combustible .”
Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles originally planned on a main hall of the Hagia Sophia that measured 230 feet by 250 feet, making it the largest church in Constantinople, but the original dome was nearly 20 feet lower than it was constructed, “ Justinian suppressed these riots and took the opportunity of marking his victory by erecting in 532-7 the new Hagia Sophia, one of the largest, most lavish, and most expensive buildings of all time .” Although Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles were not formally educated in architecture, they were scientists that could organize the logistics of drawing thousands of laborers and unprecedented loads of rare raw materials from around the Roman Empire to create the Hagia Sophia for Emperor Justinian I.
When Emperor Anastasius died in 518, Justin was proclaimed the new Emperor, with significant help from Justinian.
The destruction that had taken place during the revolt provided Justinian with an opportunity to tie his name to a series of splendid new buildings, most notably the architectural innovation of the domed Hagia Sophia.
Furthermore, Justinian restored cities damaged by earthquake or war and built a new city near his place of birth called Justiniana Prima, which was intended to replace Thessalonica as the political and religious center of the Illyricum.
After Scupi was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake in 518 AD, Justinian, according to his historian Procopius in " De Aedificiis " ( On the Buildings ), built a new city near his birthplace Tauresium and Bederiana ( believed to be today's villages Taor and Bader ) at the fertile entry point of the River Lepenec into the Vardar, making Skopje the city of Justiniana Prima.
* February 23 – Emperor Justinian I orders the building of a new Orthodox Christian basilica in Constantinople – the Hagia Sophia.
It was through the use of the restored Justinian code that Frederick came to view himself as a new Roman emperor.
With the help of his new troops, Justinian won a battle against the enemy in Armenia in 693, but they were soon bribed to revolt by the Arabs.
Justinian contributed to the development of the thematic organization of the Empire, creating a new theme of Hellas in southern Greece and numbering the heads of the five major themes-Thrace in Europe, Opsikion, the Anatolikon, and Armeniakon themes in Asia Minor, and the maritime corps of the Karabisianoi-among the senior administrators of the Empire.
It has been suggested that the 681 peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire that established the new Bulgarian state was concluded at Varna and the first Bulgarian capital south of the Danube may have been provisionally located in its vicinity — possibly in an ancient city near Lake Varna's north shore named Theodorias ( Θεοδωριάς ) by Justinian I — before it moved to Pliska 70 km to the west.
In 528, Emperor Justinian I created the new province of Theodorias out of the coastal belt around Laodicea, which was rebuilt and fortified against the increasing Persian threat.
During the reign of Emperor Justinian I, with increasing military threats and the expansion of the Eastern Empire, three new posts were created: the magister militum per Armeniam in the Armenian provinces, formerly part of the jurisdiction of the magister militum per Orientem, the magister militum per Africam in the reconquered African provinces ( 534 ), with a subordinate magister peditum, and the magister militum Spaniae ( ca.
Emperor Alexios I Komnenos ( 1081 – 1118 ) established a new military force from the ground up, which was directly responsible for transforming the aging Byzantine Empire from one of the weakest periods in its existence into a major economic and military power, akin to its existence during the golden age of Justinian I.
Some of the senators saw this as an opportunity to overthrow Justinian, as they were opposed to his new taxes and his lack of support for the nobility.
They conspired to overthrow the Emperor: if the plot had been successful, Justinian would have become the new Emperor.
He became a successful lawyer in Constantinople, and was appointed by Justinian in 528 as one of the commissioners to prepare the new imperial legal code, the Corpus Juris Civilis, released in 529.
In 534 the full Codex Justinianus was released, along with a series of new laws created by Justinian to reflect contemporary needs ( the Novellae ).
Around 555, according to Procopius, Emperor Justinian ( 527-565 ) renovated the fortifications of Nikopolis, as part of his huge program involving the renewal of city fortifications and the erection of new defences.