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The costs of editing systems have dropped such that non-linear editing tools are now within the reach of home users.
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costs and editing
Total savings on editing and cinematography costs amounted to only about $ 30, 000 for all six entries – not enough to justify the loss of depth of visual perspective, which gave those shows an appearance akin to that of stagebound live TV dramas, or even daytime soap operas which, at the time, were quickly and cheaply produced live on one or two sets.
Once the fixed costs of developing, editing, typesetting, etc., have been covered by the first sales revenue, any additional sales revenue tends to add to the profit margin ( minus, of course, the costs of the additional materials, printing, binding, and distribution ).
This approach reduces support and editing costs and thus provides access to publishing to those who would otherwise not be willing or able to afford a vanity press or find an accommodating conventional publisher.
While its quality was not considered as good as film, these MiniDV camcorders, in conjunction with non-linear editing software that could run on personal computers, allowed a large number of people to begin making movies who were previously prevented from doing so by the high costs involved with shooting on film.
It was produced entirely in digital format, to reduce production costs, and allow for easier editing when adapted for foreign markets.
costs and systems
In total, these increases in operating costs outweigh the savings that result from declining programs and from economy measures, such as reduced numbers of units and installations, smaller inventories of major equipment, and improvements in the supply and distribution systems of the Armed Forces.
As already noted in an earlier paragraph, the more familiar cost analyses of utility enterprises or utility systems divide the total costs among a number of major classes of service, such as residential, commercial, industrial power, street lighting, etc..
Flight control systems ( fly-by-wire ) and new navigation needs brought on by tighter airspaces, have pushed up development costs.
The barge and canal system contended favorably with the railways in the early industrial revolution prior to around the 1850s – 1960s for example, the Erie Canal in New York State is credited by economic historians with giving the growth boost needed for New York City to eclipse Philadelphia as America's largest port and city but such canal systems with their locks, need for maintenance and dredging, pumps and sanitary issues were eventually outcompeted in the carriage of high-value items by the railways due to the higher speed, falling costs, and route flexibility of Rail transport.
Electron microscopes are expensive to build and maintain, but the capital and running costs of confocal light microscope systems now overlaps with those of basic electron microscopes.
Computer-based control systems, sophisticated processing and packaging methods, and logistics and distribution advances can enhance product quality, improve food safety, and reduce costs.
Such systems have the advantage of reducing costs by eliminating unnecessary printouts and reducing the number of inbound analog phone lines needed by an office.
Note that the ICF and ZAAP are essentially identical to CP, but distinguished for software cost control: they are slightly restricted such they cannot be used to run arbitrary operating systems, and thus do not count in software licensing costs ( which are typically based on the number of CPs ).
In the case of large research or contract irradiation facilities, major capital costs include a radiation source ( cobalt-60 ), hardware ( irradiator, totes and conveyors, control systems, and other auxiliary equipment ), land ( 1 to 1. 5 acres ), radiation shield, and warehouse.
Therefore, the optimal mutation rate for a species is a trade-off between costs of a high mutation rate, such as deleterious mutations, and the metabolic costs of maintaining systems to reduce the mutation rate, such as DNA repair enzymes .< ref name = Sniegowski > Viruses that use RNA as their genetic material have rapid mutation rates, which can be an advantage since these viruses will evolve constantly and rapidly, and thus evade the defensive responses of e. g. the human immune system.
The company found itself unable to compete in the computer market against much larger companies and was struggling to support the costs of developing both the chips and the systems ( MIPS Magnum ).
When used for the proper application with the appropriate design, off-peak cooling systems can lower energy costs.
But, historically as a whole, the linear tracking systems never gained wide acceptance, due largely to their complexity and associated production / development costs.
Whether HTSC or LTSC systems are more economical depends because there are other major components determining the cost of SMES: Conductor consisting of superconductor and copper stabilizer and cold support are major costs in themselves.
If an SSTO vehicle were combined with reliable systems and lower maintenance design of a more automated nature, it could greatly reduce operational costs.
In Single Wire Earth Return ( SWER ) AC electrical distribution systems, costs are saved by using just a single high voltage conductor for the power grid, while routing the AC return current through the earth.
However it typically costs much more, due to it having a much greater current AC-to-DC battery-charger / rectifier, and with the rectifier and inverter designed to run continuously with improved cooling systems.
Modern cost accounting originated during the industrial revolution, when the complexities of running a large scale business led to the development of systems for recording and tracking costs to help business owners and managers make decisions.
The Dynavision and Astrovision systems each use slightly less film per frame and vertical pulldown to save print costs while being able to project onto an IMAX screen.
Worried about the growing congestion and pollution in downtown areas due to the spread of cars, many countries started studying mass transit systems that would lower capital costs to the point where any city could afford to deploy them.
The challenge in designing light rail systems is to realize the potential of LRT to provide fast, comfortable service while avoiding the tendency to overdesign that results in excessive capital costs beyond what is necessary to meet the public's needs.
costs and have
While Councilman Olson cited the anticipated increase in school costs in answer to a direct question from a taxpayer, the impact upon a school system does not have to be measured only in increased taxes to find alarm in uncontrolled growth.
Rising costs have increased the difficulties of the elderly, and I would be the last to say they should not receive consideration.
for example, if one driver puts on 22,000 miles per year and another driver 8,000 miles per year, their cars will be switched so that both cars will have 30,000 miles after two years, rather than 44,000 miles ( and related higher maintenance costs ) and 16,000 miles respectively ''.
Based on this figure and considering depreciation costs of vehicles, pool personnel have determined that travel in excess of 10,000 miles annually is more economical by state car than by payment of allowances for use of personally-owned vehicles.
As in many other industries, rising costs and intense competition, both domestic and foreign, have exerted increasing pressure on earnings of the textile industry in recent years.
Some distribution costs are kept up by competitive pressure, some by the fact that the customers have come to expect certain niceties and flourishes.
Instead of closing the house in first ( as most builders do ) you can now cut your costs by not closing it in until you have to ( see p 121 ).
Here, an apportionment, say, of $5,000,000 of the total costs to residential service as a class would include an allowance of perhaps 6 per cent as the cost of whatever capital is deemed to have been devoted to the service of the residential consumers.
If this threefold division of costs were to have its counterpart in the actual rates of charge for service, as it actually does have in some rates, there would result a three-part rate for any one class of service.
Financial grants have been received from the National Science Foundation and the ( British ) Institute of Physics for the compilation work and the publication costs.
He expressed the opinion the city could hire a CD director for about $3,500 a year and would only have to put up half that amount on a matching fund basis to defray the salary costs.
Local police have hesitated to prosecute them because of the heavy court costs involved even for the simplest offense.
And this is true in the case of some turnpikes on which revenues have risen close to, or beyond, the point at which the roads start to pay all operating costs plus annual interest on the bonds.
While humans and other organisms generally place less value on future costs / benefits as compared to those in the present, some have shorter time horizons than others and these people tend to be less cooperative.
The US Chamber of Commerce argued that the costs of the ADA would be " enormous " and have " a disastrous impact on many small businesses struggling to survive ".
# An asset with a known price in the future does not today trade at its future price discounted at the risk-free interest rate ( or, the asset does not have negligible costs of storage ; as such, for example, this condition holds for grain but not for securities ).
The bank will have higher IT costs, but counts on the multiplier effect of money creation and the interest rate spread to make it a profitable exercise.
The development of large strategic bombers stagnated in the later part of the Cold War because of spiraling costs and the development of the Intercontinental ballistic missile ( ICBM ) – which was felt to have equal deterrent value while being much more difficult to intercept.
The contents of these decks are a subset of a very large pool of available cards which have differing effects, costs, and art.
In recent times, concerns have been raised about the state of public finances and spiralling borrowing costs.
During the last few years, camera cranes have been miniaturized and costs have dropped so dramatically that most aspiring film makers have access to these tools.