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Turkmenistan and is
It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and the east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast.
Afghan Turkestan is a region in northern Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
The Commonwealth of Independent States ( CIS ) is a loose alliance or confederation consisting of 10 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being Turkmenistan ( a CIS associate member ), Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Georgia.
It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan.
No seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea has been agreed upon and the usage of Caspian Sea water is a matter that remains unsettled by international agreement.
In Repetek ( Turkmenistan ), there live seven species of scorpions ( of which Pectinibuthus birulai is endemic ) in temperatures which vary from.
A daf is a large-sized tambourine used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey ( where it is called tef ), Uzbekistan ( where it's called childirma ), India ( where it is known as the Dafli ) and Turkmenistan.
While the ancient history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history.
Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea to the west, Iran and Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the north-east, and Kazakhstan to the north-west.
The Kopet Dag Range is a region characterized by foothills, dry and sandy slopes, mountain plateaus, and steep ravines ; Mount Şahşah ( 2, 912 m ), also known as Mount Rizeh, southwest of Ashgabat, is the highest elevation of the Kopet Dag Range in Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan has a cold desert climate that is severely continental.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, environmental regulation is largely unchanged in Turkmenistan.
The Demographics of Turkmenistan is about the demographic features of the population of Turkmenistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
The politics of Turkmenistan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkmenistan is both head of state and head of government.
Turkmenistan is sometimes described as a " reclusive ex-Soviet nation ".
The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan is the only one legally permitted.
Turkmenistan is dominated by a pervasive cult of personality extolling the late president as Türkmenbaşy (" Leader of all Turkmen "), a title he assumed in 1993.
His book, Ruhnama ( or Rukhnama ), which is revered in Turkmenistan almost like a holy text, has been translated into 32 languages and distributed for free among major international libraries.

Turkmenistan and larger
Bordering Turkmenistan to the southwest, Kazakstan to the north, and Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to the south and east, Uzbekistan is not only one of the larger Central Asian states but also the only Central Asian state to border all of the other four.
Bukharan PSR, together with the Khorezm PSR, stretched from norh-west to south-east in a belt that cut Turkestan ASSR, into two separate parts: the small part in the south-west, corresponding to today's Turkmenistan ( except a narrow strip along the southern bank of Amudarya, which was included in the Bukharan PSR ), and the much larger part in the north-east, corresponding to sections of today's Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.

Turkmenistan and than
Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings.
In 2006 Turkmenistan had eight merchant marine vessels of more than 1, 000 tons displacement, of which four were cargo ships, two were oil tankers, one was for refrigerated cargo, and one was a combination ore and oil ship.
In 2006 Turkmenistan had an estimated 29 airports, of which 22 had paved runways and one ( at Ashgabat ) had a runway longer than 3, 000 meters.
At present, Afghanistan imports more than 320 million kilowatt hours of electricity every year from Turkmenistan.
One species, the great gerbil, or Rhombomys opimus, originally native to Turkmenistan, can grow to more than 16 inches ( 400 mm ).
The republic's Supreme Soviet had little choice other than to declare Turkmenistan's independence from the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Republic of Turkmenistan on October 27, 1991.
European route E 40 is the longest European route, more than long, connecting Calais in France via Belgium, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan, with Ridder in Kazakhstan near the border to China.
" U. S. Senator Sam Brownback noted, " Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have clearly received more credit than the facts would warrant.
In addition, Deveaux provides technical advice to the more than 65 parliaments in countries where UNDP has projects with those national parliaments, including the parliaments of Guyana, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan, Cambodia and Turkmenistan.

Turkmenistan and California
The pistachio, Pistacia vera in the Anacardiaceae family, is a small tree originally from Greater Iran ( Iran and Iraq ) which now can also be found in regions of Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Tunisia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Egypt, Italy ( Sicily ), Uzbekistan, Afghanistan ( especially in the provinces of Samangan and Badghis ), and the United States, specifically in California.

Turkmenistan and territory
As in the Soviet era, Kyrgyzstan has the right to 25 % of the water that originates in its territory, but the new agreement allows Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan unlimited use of the water that flows into them from Kyrgyzstan, with no compensation for the nation at the source.
The territory of Turkmenistan has been populated since ancient times, especially the areas near oasis of Merv, where traces of human settlements have been found.
Tribes of horse-breeding Iranian Scythians drifted into the territory of Turkmenistan at about 2000 BC, possibly from the Russian steppes and moved along the outskirts of the Karakum desert into Iran, Syria, and Anatolia.
Almost 80 % of the territory of Turkmenistan lacks a constant source of surface water flow.
Chagatai's ulus, or hereditary territory, consisted of the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili River ( today in eastern Kazakhstan ) and Kashgaria ( in the western Tarim Basin ) to Transoxiana ( modern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan ).
In first time territory of Khurasan ( including area Gorgan ) owned tribe aparnak ( parthians ), moved here from Dakhistan / Dahistan ( a part of territory of modern Turkmenistan ) where they entered in confederation of Dahai tribes ,-the " barbars " and " enemies of Aryans " according to Avestan texts as thinks Christian Bartholomae.
The Panjdeh Incident or Panjdeh Scare ( Russian: Афганский кризис, Afghan Crisis or Бой за Кушку, Battle of Kushka ) was a battle that occurred in 1885 when Russian forces seized Afghan territory south of the Oxus River ( modern name Amu Darya ) around an oasis at Panjdeh ( modern Serhetabat in Turkmenistan ).
In the territory of Turkmenistan, close to Takhta-Bazaar, the Murghab receives the Kachan river from the left bank, and 25 kilometers further, there is the confluence of the Kushk.
The flow of Murghab was observed during 50 years ( 1936-1985 ) at Takhta-Bazaar, a location in Turkmenistan about thirty kilometers after the Murghab leaves the Afghan territory, and a score of kilometers upstream of the confluence with the Kushk.
Today the territory of the defunct Bukhara SSR lies mostly in Uzbekistan with parts in Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
miles .. Part of Russian Turkestan, Transcaspian Oblast corresponds roughly to the territory of present-day Turkmenistan.

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