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lower and courts
Then in 1875, apparently in response to the nationalizing influence of the Civil War, Congress first gave the lower federal courts general authority -- concurrently with state tribunals -- to decide cases involving federal-right questions.
In the federal courts, the parties ' names always stay in the same order as the lower court when an appeal is taken to the circuit courts of appeals, and are re-ordered only if the appeal reaches the Supreme Court.
" Appellate review " is the general term for the process by which courts with appellate jurisdiction take jurisdiction of matters decided by lower courts.
In Anglo-American common law courts, appellate review of lower court decisions may also be obtained by filing a petition for review by prerogative writ in certain cases.
In an adversarial system, appellate courts do not have the power to review lower court decisions unless a party appeals it.
The authority of appellate courts to review decisions of lower courts varies widely from one jurisdiction to another.
Historically, others have titled their appellate court a court of errors ( or court of errors and appeals ), on the premise that it was intended to correct errors made by lower courts.
In the United States, both state and federal appellate courts are usually restricted to examining whether the lower court made the correct legal determinations, rather than hearing direct evidence and determining what the facts of the case were.
In 1256, the castrum of Abensprech was first mentioned, and on 12 June 1348, Ludwig, Margrave of Brandenburg, and his brother, Stephen, Duke of Bavaria, raised Abensberg to the status of a city, giving it the right to operate lower courts, enclose itself with a wall and hold markets.
While the Freien Ämter often had independent lower courts, they were forced to accept the Confederation's sovereignty.
However, retired Associate Justices ( unlike judges on senior status ) take no part in the consideration or decision of any cases before the Supreme Court, although they may be appointed by the Chief Justice to sit on lower courts.
For example, in most jurisdictions, decisions by appellate courts are binding on lower courts in the same jurisdiction and on future decisions of the same appellate court, but decisions of lower courts are only non-binding persuasive authority.
Later decisions, and decisions of higher courts or legislatures carry more weight than earlier cases and those of lower courts.
In the UK, since 2009, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom has the authority to overrule and unify decisions of lower courts.
Generally speaking decisions from the higher courts will bind the lower courts.

lower and magistrates
In Spain, magistrates of the Supreme Court, magistrates and judges are addressed to as " Your Lordship " ( Su Señoría ); however, in formal occasions, magistrates of the Supreme Court are addressed to as " Your Right Honorable Lordship " ( Vuestra Señoría Excelentísima or Excelentísimo Señor / Excelentísima Señora ); in those solemn occasions, magistrates of lower Courts are addressed as " Your Honorable Lordship " ( Vuestra Señoría Ilustrísima or Ilustrísimo Señor / Ilustrísima Señora ); simple judges are always called " Your Lordship ".
The three year B. Juris was the basic requirement for prosecutors and magistrates in the lower courts, but on its own, did not qualify one to practice as an attorney.
Most cases are, however, tried in the magistrates ' courts or other lower courts, and appeals from these courts are heard by the High Court.
* The right to appeal from the decisions of magistrates and to appeal the lower court decisions.
* They give the state the " ultimate say " over the death penalty by allowing a new High Court to review death sentences passed by lower magistrates.
They also hear any appeals or reviews from lower courts ( magistratescourts ) which fall in their geographical jurisdiction.
One of the most prominent leaders of the opposition in the lower house of parliament, Piero Fassino, called for the United States to facilitate cooperation with the investigation, indicating that they believed the U. S. Army should produce Lozano for questioning by the prosecuting magistrates.
The new fleets were commanded by the annually elected Roman magistrates, but naval expertise was provided by the lower officers, who continued to be provided by the socii, mostly Greeks.

lower and are
Most women, in this age of freezers, shop for the entire week on week-ends, when prices are lower.
Unit prices to the state are considerably lower than to the general public because of quantity purchases and no payment of state sales or federal excise taxes.
Unit prices for state vehicles are invariably lower than to the general public.
With respect to other frequencies, these are designated as regional or local, and assigned for use by class 3, and class 4, stations, respectively, stations operating generally with lower power.
Finally, maintenance costs on plastic signs are much lower than on fragile neon signs.
There are few areas left where a builder cannot find a dealer equipped to save him money by delivering everything at lower cost just where his workmen will need it.
These are fluids which one would expect to be less viscoelastic or more Newtonian because of their lower molecular weight.
There is one exception to the above statement as has been pointed out, and that is that fluids can relax by flowing into fields of lower rates of shear, so the statement should be modified by stating that the mechanics are similar.
The Af layers are stacked normal to the ( 111 ) axis with the lower oxygens of one layer directly above the upper oxygens of the neighboring lower layer, in such a manner that the repeat is every three layers.
( 3 ) hydrogen atoms are asymmetrically placed, either randomly or in an ordered way, so that some hydrogen atoms are closer to the upper oxygen atoms while others are closer to the lower oxygen atoms.
The lower portion permits comparison of maturity levels of short and round bones predominantly, since only two long bones are included in Hand and Wrist as a region.
Accordingly, maturity level ratings by means of the upper portion and lower portion of the Chart, respectively, should be somewhat similar since Skeletal Age assessments are dependent upon Onsets during infancy and upon Completions during adolescence.
Thus, the white middle and lower classes are arrayed against the Negro middle and lower classes.
In so far as this goal is achieved, the society becomes more fluid, artificial barriers to social mobility are reduced, and people at the lower end of the social hierarchy share more fully in the material and cultural goods of society.
It might be argued that the Communists are less inhuman than the Nazis and furnish the artist with drama in a lower key.
The arithmetic mean may be misinterpreted as the median to imply that most values are higher or lower than is actually the case.
In an appeal on the record from a decision in a judicial proceeding, both appellant and respondent are bound to base their arguments wholly on the proceedings and body of evidence as they were presented in the lower tribunal.
They are present in the lower Cambrian fossil record along with trilobites from the Redlichiida, Corynexochida, and Ptychopariida orders.
They are distinguished by the nerve cells affected ( upper and lower motor neuron ), and the symptoms that result from this damage:

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