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* 1685-Louis XIV of France decrees the Code noir ( Black Code ) that ordered all Jews out of the French colonial empire, defined the rules for slavery, restricted the activities of free Negroes, and forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism.
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XIV and France
It was in the age of absolute monarchy launched by Louix XIV in the 17th century that the likes of Poussin and Le Brun put France in the forefront of European art.
Louis XIV of France sought to knock Emperor Leopold out of the war by seizing Vienna, the Habsburg capital, and gain a favourable peace settlement.
For the Grand Alliance – Austria, England, and the Dutch Republic – the battle had followed an indecisive campaign against the Bourbon armies of King Louis XIV of France in 1705.
The Duke of Marlborough had intended the 1705 campaign – an invasion of France through the Moselle valley – to complete the work of Blenheim and persuade King Louis XIV to make peace, but the plan had been thwarted by both friend and foe alike.
Determined to show the Grand Alliance that France was still resolute, Louis XIV prepared to launch a double surprise in Alsace and northern Italy.
All in all though, the situation had changed considerably and Louis XIV began to look for ways to end what was fast becoming a ruinous war for France.
In France he was considered as the restorer of the art, which had declined after the time of Louis XIV, and during the last twenty years of his life the French government commissiond him to undertake several works.
Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde, being effectively annexed to the Kingdom of France only in 1653, when the army of Louis XIV entered the city.
Some notable collectors were Pope Boniface VIII, Emperor Maximilian of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis XIV of France, Ferdinand I, Henry IV of France and Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, who started the Berlin Coin Cabinet ( German: Münzkabinett Berlin ).
In the Renaissance period the Italian doors are quite simple, their architects trusting more to the doorways for effect ; but in France and Germany the contrary is the case, the doors being elaborately carved, especially in the Louis XIV and Louis XV periods, and sometimes with architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry.
André Lorin visited the English court in the late 17th century and after returning to France he presented a manuscript of dances in the English manner to Louis XIV.
Under Louis XIV France achieved military supremacy over its rivals, but escalating conflicts against increasingly powerful enemy coalitions checked French ambitions and left the kingdom bankrupt at the opening of the 18th century.
In 17th and 18th century, king Louis XIV of France captured more French-speaking areas in southern Flanders around Lille, referred to as Lilloise Flanders or la Flandre Lilloise, but also Maritime Flanders, where originally Dutch was spoken, and to this day, a Flemish dialect persists in some rural areas near Dunkirk.
In the autumn he had made a will bequeathing the whole of the Spanish possessions to Prince Philip of Bourbon, a grandson of Louis XIV backed by France.
William was also stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic, then in the preliminary stages of joining the War of the Grand Alliance against France, in a context of international tensions caused by the revocation by Louis XIV of the Edict of Nantes and the disputed succession of Cologne and the Electorate of the Palatinate.
Louis XIV of France conquered parts of Alsace and Lorraine ( 1678 – 1681 ), and had invaded and devastated the Electorate of the Palatinate ( 1688 – 1697 ) in the War of Palatinian Succession.
King Louis XIV of France eventually " won " the War of Spanish Succession, and control of Spain passed to the Bourbon dynasty.
( Ironically, the Protestant William had also enjoyed the support of the Pope and the Catholic Habsburg monarchy against the aggressive foreign policy of Louis XIV of France ).
Louis XIV, known as the " Sun King ", reigned over France from 1643 until 1715 although his strongest period of personal rule did not begin until 1661 after the death of his Italian chief minister Cardinal Mazarin.
XIV and decrees
Benedict XIV ( De synodo diœces., l. II, c. x ) declared that such synodal decrees are not too severe, as an absolute prohibition of hunting is more conformable to the ecclesiastical law.
XIV and Code
To regularize slavery, in 1685 Louis XIV enacted the Code Noir, which accorded certain human rights to slaves and responsibilities to the master, who was obliged to feed, clothe, and provide for the general well-being of their slaves.
In 1685, Louis XIV signed into law the Code Noir ( Black Code ), which regulated slavery in the French colonies.
* Critics of sedevacantism argue that this also means that the theory advanced by the seventeenth-century theologian and Doctor of the Church Robert Bellarmine that a pope who fell into heresy would automatically forfeit his office and could be formally deposed has been overruled by Church authority by Benedict XIV in " De Synodo Dioecesano " ( 10, 1, 5 ) and by the 1917 Code of Canon Law, Can.
* March – Louis XIV of France passes the " Code Noir ", allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies.
Louis XIV, the French King, passed the Code Noir in 1685 in an attempt to regulate such violence and the treatment of slaves in general in the colony, but masters openly and consistently broke the code, and local legislations reversed parts of it throughout the 18th century.
XIV and noir
To regularise slavery, in 1685 Louis XIV had enacted the code noir, which accorded certain human rights to slaves and responsibilities to the master, who was obliged to feed, clothe and provide for the general well-being of his slaves.
XIV and Black
* 17th century: Catherine Monvoisin and the priest Etienne Guibourg performed " Black Masses " for Madame de Montespan, the mistress of King Louis XIV of France.
Previous artists featured include Gym Class Heroes, Tori Amos, Phantom Planet, Louis XIV, Death Cab for Cutie, Black Kids, Bloc Party, Steve Aoki, Hot Hot Heat, The Shins and Muse.
XIV and ordered
His successor Clement XIV tried to placate the enemies of the Jesuits by treating them harshly: he refused to meet the Superior General, Lorenzo Ricci, ordered them not to receive novices, etc.
In a decree dated 18 April 1591 ( Bulla Cum Sicuti ), Gregory XIV ordered reparations to be made by Catholics in the Philippines to the natives, who had been forced into slavery by Europeans, and he commanded under pain of excommunication of the owners that all native slaves in the islands be set free.
* Blaise Pascal's Lettres provinciales, a defense of the Jansenist Antoine Arnauld, is ordered to be shredded and burned by King Louis XIV of France.
In April and May of 1677, Louis XIV and Vauban visited Calais and ordered a complete rebuilding of Fort Nieulay.
In 1672, Louis XIV ordered the construction of a citadel, Fort Saint Louis, at Fort Royal Bay to defend Martinique.
Louis XIV, shocked that his grandson's tutors held such views, removed Fénelon from his post as royal tutor and ordered Fénelon to remain within the boundaries of the archdiocese of Cambrai.
A Royal Commission was appointed and in 1665 recommended the project which was finally ordered by Louis XIV in 1666 with the possible expenditure of 3, 360, 000 livres.
Learning of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas's XIV Corps stand on Snodgrass Hill, Sheridan ordered his division back to the fighting, but they took a circuitous route and did not participate in the fighting as some histories claim.
When Louise XIV ordered the court to be moved to Montauban ( some 60km south of Cahors over difficult roads ), during the presidency of Jacques Lefranc in the early years of the 18th century, the family built a town house in Montauban as their local residence.
It has a castle erected in 1270, some vestiges of which survived the dismantlement that Louis XIV ordered in 1678.
In 1681, Louis XIV asked Admiral Abraham Duquesne to fight the Berber pirates-he also ordered a large-scale attack on Algiers between 1682 and 1683 in order to assist Christian captives.
By the Edict of Fontainebleau, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes and ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches, as well as the closing of Protestant schools.
Women began to dance in ballet in 1681, twenty years after King Louis XIV of France ordered the founding of the Académie Royale de Danse.
With the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Louis XIV withdrew the privileges and toleration that Protestant Huguenots in France had been guaranteed under the edict for nearly 87 years, and ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches and the closure of Huguenot schools.
Pope Innocent IV ordered 20 casks of wine from there in 1357 and Henry IV of France and Louis XIV served them regularly in court known only as Rhône wine.
In 1589 Pope Sixtus V dissolved the civilian government, but Pope Gregory XIV in 1591 ordered the reunification of the two powers ( papal and civilian ), thus sealing the definitive end of the free municipality.
By 1687, the fragile ceramic tiles had deteriorated to such a point that Louis XIV ordered the demolition of the pavilion and its replacement with one made of stronger material.
Louis XIV even ordered the construction of a larger wing to the Grand Trianon which was begun in 1708 by Mansart ; this wing, called Trianon-sous-Bois, housed the Orléans family, including Louis XIV's legitimised daughter Françoise-Marie de Bourbon.
" Still another account claims that after Marchand's wife had left him, Louis XIV ordered half the composer's salary to be withheld and paid to her.
Emperor Basil II ( 976-1025 ) ordered a revision of the Synaxarion, which forms an important element of the present official edition ( Analecta Bollandiana, XIV, 1895, p. 404 ).
From the church, passing through a Gothic gate, is a stairway leading to the ex-monastery of S. Nicholas, destroyed by the earthquake in 1915, restored in 1934: it has maintained the chorus and the inlaid cupboards of the 18th century, ordered by Pope Clement XIV.
Evidence suggest that Louis XIV ordered the plantings of Melon de Bourgogne in the Muscadet region following the devastating frost of 1709 that wiped out many vineyards. The wine-growing tradition in the region where Muscadet is produced dates from an edict of the Roman emperor Probus who had the first vineyards planted by soldiers.
The French ampelographer Pierre Galet found evidence that following that deep freeze, King Louis XIV ordered the replanting himself with a grape called Muscadent blanc that was most likely the Melon de Bourgogne.