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Durand and line
This line, the Durand Line, is named after Mortimer Durand and which still remains as an unrecognized boundary by the Government of Afghanistan.
In the year 1893, during rule of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, a Royal Commission for setting up of Boundary between Afghanistan and British Governed India was set up to negotiate terms with the British, for the agreeing to the Durand line, and the two parties camped at Parachinar, now part of FATA Pakistan, which is near Khost, Afghanistan.
Category: Durand line
* Durand line
Category: Durand line
With the creation of an independent Pakistan, the Durand line conflict with the British colonialists was inherited by the two countries.
As a result of this violation, the Afghan government declared that it recognized " neither the imaginary Durand nor any similar line " and that all previous Durand Line agreements were void.
Category: Durand line
This longitude passes through the eastern end of the main north Japanese island of Hokkaidō and through the eastern end of New Guinea, which is where Frédéric Durand placed the demarcation line.
The single-page agreement which contains seven short articles was signed by H. M. Durand and Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, agreeing not to exercise interference beyond the frontier line between Afghanistan and the adjoining regions of what was then colonial British India ( now Pakistan ).
Some scholars have suggested that the Durand Line was never intended to be a boundary demarcating sovereignty, but rather a line of control beyond which either side agreed not to interfere unless there were an expedient need to do so.
As a result of this violation, the Afghan government declared that it recognized " neither the imaginary Durand nor any similar line " and that all previous Durand Line agreements were void.
They also announced that the Durand ethnic division line had been imposed on them under coercion / duress and was a diktat.
During Operation Cyclone, the ISI with full support / funding from the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) and the White House in the United States recruited huge numbers of mujahideen militant groups on the Pakistani side of the Durand line to cross into Afghanistan's territory for missions to destroy the Soviet-backed Afghan government.
After the collapse of the pro-Soviet Afghan government in 1992, Pakistan being well aware of its Durand Line Agreement violation ( specifically article 2 where it mentions " The Government of India ( Pakistan ) < u > will at no time exercise interference </ u > in the territories lying beyond this line on the side of Afghanistan ") created a puppet state in Afghanistan run by the Taliban.
Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office ( AGCHO ) depicts the line on their maps as a de facto border, including naming the " Durand Line 2310 km ( 1893 )" as an " International Boundary Line " on their home page.
Much of the northern and central Durand line is quite mountainous, where crossing the border is often only practical in the numerous passes through the mountains.
Sixty percent of the Afghan population is Pakhtun ( Pathan ) and Afghanistan has steadfastly refused to accept the old Afghan-British Durand line of 1893 as a suitable permanent boundary between the Pathans of Afghanistan and of Pakistan, while Pakistan refused to draw a new frontier.
Only this group in the three valleys of Birir, Bumburet and Rumbur escaped conversion, because they were located east of the Durand line in the Princely State of Chitral.
Durand line
Burhanuddin Rabbani and the late Ahmad Shah Massoud's closest advisers joined Dostum in his demands to change the presidential system into parliamentary, to negotiate with armed groups and to recognize the Durand line.

Durand and marked
Apart from technical questions, in which Guibert's enlightened conservatism stands in marked contrast to the doctrinaire progressiveness of Menil Durand, Folard and others, the book is chiefly valued for its broad outlook on the state of Europe, especially of military Europe in the period 1763-1792.
On its south side, the Durand Line agreement of 1893 marked the boundary between British India and Afghanistan.
On its south side, the Durand Line agreement of 1893 marked the boundary between British India and Afghanistan.

Durand and boundary
In 1893, Mortimer Durand was deputed to Kabul by the government of British India for this purpose of settling an exchange of territory required by the demarcation of the boundary between northeastern Afghanistan and the Russian possessions, and in order to discuss with Amir Abdur Rahman Khan other pending questions.
Maps showing the boundary of Afghanistan before the 1893 Durand Line | Durand Line Treaty.
For Abdur Rahman, delineating the boundary with India ( through the Pashtun area ) was far more significant, and it was during his reign that the Durand Line was drawn.
Other legal questions currently being considered are those of state practice, i. e. whether the relevant states de facto treat the frontier as an international boundary, and whether the de jure independence of the Tribal Territories at the moment of Indian Independence undermine the validity of Durand Agreement and subsequent treaties.
However, neither the relatively short Durand Line Agreement itself nor the much longer joint boundary demarcation documents that followed in 1894-6 make any mention of a time limit suggesting the treaty should be treated similar to the Curzon Line and Mexican Cession.
m. The Durand line boundary line now runs through the Mohmand area.
For the British, the Durand Line was reaffirmed as the political boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan and British India and the Afghans agreed not to foment trouble on the British side.
The British also made some political gains, most notably the reaffirmation of the Durand Line – which had long been a contentious issue between the two nations – as the political boundary separating Afghanistan from the North-West Frontier, and the undertaking that the Afghans made to stop interference on the British side of the line.
This line, the Durand Line, is named after him and remains the international boundary between Afghanistan and modern-day Pakistan, officially recognized by most nations but an ongoing point of contention between the two countries.
In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand was deputed to Kabul by the government of British India for the purpose of settling an exchange of territory required by the demarcation of the boundary between northeastern Afghanistan and the Russian possessions, and in order to discuss with the Amir Abdur Rahman Khan other pending questions.

Durand and between
In 1893 Mortimer Durand negotiated with Abdur Rahman Khan, the Durand Line Treaty for the demarcation of the frontier between Afghanistan, the FATA, North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan Provinces of Pakistan the successor state of British India.
The Durand Line was not intended as a permanent border, and clashes broke out in the 1950s and 1960s between Afghanistan and Pakistan over the issue.
During the Restoration ( 1814 – 30 ), Louis XVIII and Charles X between them added 135 pieces at a cost of 720, 000 francs and created the department of Egyptian antiquities curated by Champollion, increased by more than 7, 000 works with the acquisition of antiquities in the Edmé-Antoine Durand, the Egyptian collection of Henry Salt or the second collection former by Bernardino Drovetti.
* July 26, 1949 — Afghanistan-Pakistan relations rapidly deteriorated over a dispute, officially declared that it did not recognize the 1893 Durand Line border any longer between the two countries.
* 1893 – The treaty of the Durand Line is signed between present day Pakistan and Afghanistan ; the Durand Line has gained international recognition as an international border between the two nations.
The nation is geopolitically placed within some of the most controversial regional boundaries which share disputes and have many-a-times escalated military tensions between the nations, e. g., that of Kashmir with India and the Durand Line with Afghanistan.
Pashtunistan was politically divided for administration in 1893 by the Durand Line, a disputed and poorly-marked border between Afghanistan and British India.
Although the Pashtuns are politically separated by the Durand Line between Pakistan and Afghanistan, many Pashtun tribes from the FATA area and the adjacent regions of Afghanistan, tend to ignore the border and cross back and forth with relative ease to attend weddings, family functions and take part in the joint tribal councils known as jirgas.
In 1893, as part of a way for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence, the Durand Line Agreement was signed between Afghan " Iron " Amir Abdur Rahman and British Viceroy Mortimer Durand.
He often describes his nation and Pakistan as " inseparable twin brothers ", a reference to the disputed Durand Line border between the two states.
Sitting near the Durand Line border with Afghanistan and close to Kandahar province, Quetta is a trade and communications center between the two countries as well as an important military location which occupies a strategic position for the Pakistani Armed Forces.
However, many remnants of the area's nineteenth century grandeur can be found in the side and back streets of Stockwell, notably in the Stockwell Park Conservation Area, mostly built between 1825 and 1840 and centred on Stockwell Park Road, Stockwell Park Crescent, Durand Gardens, and Albert Square.
Caught between the strategic interests of foreign powers and disappointed by the demarcation of the Durand Line in southern Afghanistan, which cut into Pashtun territory, he set out to bring the northern peripheries of the country more firmly under his control.
The border between Pakistan and Afghanistan is called the Durand Line, named after the Foreign Secretary of ( British Raj | British ) India Mortimer Durand in 1893.
The Durand Line (, ) refers to the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
It was formally established after the 1893 Durand Line Agreement between a representative of colonial British India and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence.

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