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German and leadership
The Second French Empire, his Western European model, had been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War by the North German Confederation under the leadership of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The school existed in three German cities ( Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933 ), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.
The German leadership had also been criticized for failing to understand the technical advances of the First World War, having given tank production the lowest priority and having conducted no studies of the machine gun prior to that war.
On the Eastern Front of World War I, where combat did not bog down into trench warfare, German and Russian armies fought a war of maneuver over thousands of miles, giving the German leadership unique experience which the trench-bound Western Allies did not have.
Some historians were prepared to go even further, claiming that blitzkrieg was not merely an operational doctrine of the German armed forces but a strategic concept on which the leadership of the Third Reich based its strategic and economic planning.
The German leadership were concerned less with how to balance the civilian economy and the needs of civilian consumption, but rather to figure out how to best prepare the economy for total war.
It has been argued by John Mosier that, while the French soldiers in 1940 were better trained than German soldiers, as were the Americans later, and the German army was the least mechanised of the major armies, its leadership cadres were both larger and superior and their high standards of leadership were the primary reason for the successes of the German army in World War Two as it had been in World War One.
Anne further honoured Churchill, after his leadership in the victories against the French of 13 August 1704 near the village of Blenheim ( German Blindheim ) on the river Danube ( Battle of Blenheim ), by granting him the royal manor of Woodstock, and building him a house at her own expense to be called Blenheim.
Germanicus ' leadership and command qualities were shown in full at the battle as his superior tactics and better trained and equipped legions inflicted huge casualties on the German army with only minor losses.
While the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the population and most of the territory of the Reich, the Prussian leadership became supplanted by German leaders and Prussia itself played a lesser role.
These groups — the Nazi party and government leadership, the German General Staff and High Command ( OKW ); the Sturmabteilung ( SA ); the Schutzstaffel ( SS ), including the Sicherheitsdienst ( SD ); and the Gestapo — had an aggregate membership exceeding two million, making a large number of their members liable to trial if the organisations were convicted.
Critics of the East German state have claimed that the state's commitment to communism was a hollow and cynical tool Machiavellian in nature, but this assertion has been challenged by studies that have found that the East German leadership was genuinely committed to the advance of scientific knowledge, economic development, and social progress.
At the court of Hungary there were two parties arrayed against each other: the Magyar party under the leadership of Zápolyas and the German party under the leadership of George of Brandenburg, whose authority was increased by the acquisition of the duchies of Ratibor and Oppeln by hereditary treaties with their respective dukes and of the territories of Oderberg, Beuthen, and Tarnowitz as pledges from the king of Bohemia, who could not redeem his debts.
Unification was achieved with the formation of the German Empire in 1871 under the leadership of Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
Before 1750 the German upper classes looked to France for intellectual, cultural and architectural leadership ; French was the language of high society.
The German Confederation () was founded, a loose union of 39 states ( 35 ruling princes and 4 free cities ) under Austrian leadership, with a Federal Diet () meeting in Frankfurt am Main.
In its place the North German Federation ( German Norddeutscher Bund ) was established, under the leadership of Prussia.

German and rejected
After Heine's German birthplace of Düsseldorf had rejected, allegedly for anti-Semitic motives, a centennial monument to the radical German-Jewish poet ( 1797 – 1856 ), his incensed German-American admirers, including Carl Schurz, started a movement to place one instead in Midtown Manhattan, at Fifth Avenue and 59th Street.
In the recess drafted on 9 February 1523, however, the German princes rejected this appeal.
International co-productions of the kind which were becoming common in France and Italy tended to be rejected by German producers ( Schneider 1990: 43 ).
Despite the foundation of the Kuratorium Junger Deutscher Film ( Young German Film Committee ) in 1965, set up under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of the Interior to support new German films financially, the directors of this New German Cinema, who rejected co-operation with the existing film industry, were consequently often dependent on money from television.
According to Plenge, the " ideas of 1789 " that included rights of man, democracy, individualism and liberalism were being rejected in favour of " the ideas of 1914 " that included " German values " of duty, discipline, law, and order.
After negotiations, the Saarland Greens rejected the option of a left-wing ' red-red-green ' coalition with the SPD and The Left ( Die Linke ) in order to form a centre-right state government with the CDU and Free Democratic Party ( FDP ), a historical first time that a Jamaica coalition has formed in German politics.
Yet, seven years after the Allies ’ Potsdam Agreement to a unified Germany, the USSR via the Stalin Note ( 10 March 1952 ) proposed German reunification and superpower disengagement from Central Europe, which the three Western Allies ( US, France, UK ) rejected.
His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, rejected reunification as equivalent to returning East Germany for annexation to the West ; hence reunification went unconsidered until the German Democratic Republic collapsed in 1989.
One after another the German states switched to oppose Napoleon, but he rejected peace terms.
In 1939, the Polish government rejected the German offer of forming an alliance on terms which would amount to an end or severe curtailment of Poland's sovereignty ; Hitler abrogated the Polish-German pact.
In Stalin's last year of life, one of his last major foreign policy initiatives was the 1952 Stalin Note for German reunification and Superpower disengagement from Central Europe, but Britain, France, and the United States viewed this with suspicion and rejected the offer.
Initially, Germany hoped to transform Poland into a satellite state, but by March 1939 German demands had been rejected by the Poles three times, which led Hitler to decide, with enthusiastic support from Ribbentrop, upon the destruction of Poland as the main German foreign policy goal of 1939.
" As intended by Ribbentrop, the narrow time limit for acceptance of the " final offer " made it impossible for the British government to contact the Polish government in time about the German offer, let alone for the Poles to arrange for a Polish plenipotentiary envoy to arrive in Berlin that night, thereby allowing Ribbentrop to claim that the Poles had rejected the German " final offer ".
He built very little in these years ( one built commission was Philip Johnson's New York apartment ); the Nazis rejected his style as not " German " in character.
While doing his obligatory community service ( Zivildienst ) in a West German hospital in 1989, Rust stabbed a female co-worker who had rejected him.
After the publication of the secret protocols and other secret German – Soviet relations documents, in 1948, Stalin published Falsifiers of History, which included the claim that, during the Pact's operation, Stalin rejected Hitler's claim to share in a division of the world, without mentioning the Soviet offer to join the Axis.
It has been claimed that the German authorities, under the leadership of Chancellor Willy Brandt and Minister for the Interior Hans-Dietrich Genscher, rejected Israel's offer to send an Israeli special forces unit to Germany.
After the First Vatican Council ( 1869 – 1870 ), several groups of Austrian, German and Swiss Catholics rejected the solemn declaration concerning papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals and left to form their own churches.
This was returned to the German government, as the PDS had rejected claims to overseas SED assets in 1990.
They rejected many tales they collected because of their similarity to tales by Charles Perrault, which they thought proved they were not truly German tales ; Sleeping Beauty survived in their collection because the tale of Brynhildr convinced them that the figure of the sleeping princess was authentically German.

German and cease
The peace settlement was in effect only a cease fire, and Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the German city of Hanover ( a fief of the British crown ).
De jure, the German Reich did not cease to exist in 1945, but after four years of Allied occupation, three German states were formed inside of Germany as a whole in 1949: the Federal Republic of Germany ( then commonly known as West Germany ) in the former U. S., and British zones of occupation, the Saar in French zone, until 1957, when it joined the FRG, and the German Democratic Republic ( East Germany ) in the former Soviet Zone.
The German diplomat called on the Norwegians to cease their resistance and stated Hitler's demand that the King appoint Nazi sympathizer Vidkun Quisling, who had declared himself prime minister hours earlier in Oslo, as head of what would be a German puppet government.
Gerd von Rundstedt and Günther von Kluge suggested that the German forces around the Dunkirk pocket should cease their advance on the port and consolidate, to avoid an Allied break.
General Ludwig Beck, chief of the German general staff, noted that Hitler's change of heart in favour of quick action was due to Czech defences still being improvised, which would cease to be the case 2 – 3 years later, and British rearmament not coming into effect until 1941 / 42.
The decision of the German Empire to cease minting silver thaler coins in 1871 caused a drop in demand and downward pressure on the value of silver ; this had a knock-on effect in the USA, where much of the supply was then mined.
His opponents did not cease denouncing him even after he had obtained for his work the approbation of the chief rabbi of the German communities.
German forces in Italy surrender: On 1 May, SS General Karl Wolff and the Commander-in-Chief of the Army Group C, General Heinrich von Vietinghoff, after prolonged unauthorised secret negotiations with the Western Allies named Operation Sunrise, which were viewed as trying to reach a separate peace by the Soviet Union, ordered all German armed forces in Italy to cease hostilities and signed a surrender document which stipulated that all German forces in Italy were to surrender unconditionally to the Allies on 2 May.
German politicians had signed an armistice leading to a cease fire on November 11, 1918, with the Western and former Eastern front lines outside of Germany.
After the invasion of Poland by German forces, on 2 November 1939, the president of Poland Ignacy Mościcki ordered that the Senate and Sejm cease to operate and remain in recess until the end of the war, after which elections were ordered to take place within 60 days after the cessation of hostilities ; this however, was never to take place.
* An attack prior to the Battle of Messines Ridge on a British supply train by German aircraft disrupts the supply of British ammunition, forcing British artillery to cease firing after three hours.
On 14 June 1940 the INR was forced to cease broadcasting as a result of the German invasion.
This term, the traditional English translation of the German word aufheben, means to preserve, to maintain, but also to cease, to put an end to.
Swiss clubs played German clubs anyway, but had to cease doing so due to international protests.
Brauchitsch agreed with harsh measures against the Polish population claiming they were inevitable for securing the German Lebensraum and ordered to his army and commanders that criticism of Nazism racist policy should cease as Nazi policy was needed for " forthcoming battle of destiny of the German people ".
After Breakpoint was announced to cease, rumours were generated about a possible successor for a German easter-party.
Bishops have, in virtue of their God-given powers, full authority within their dioceses in all matters of dispensation, patronage and the like ; papal bulls, briefs, etc., and the decrees of the Roman Congregations are only of binding force in each diocese when sanctioned by the bishop ; nunciatures, as hitherto conceived, are to cease ; the oath of allegiance to the pope demanded of bishops since Gregory VII's time is to be altered so as to bring it into conformity with episcopal rights ; annates and the fees payable for the pallium and confirmation are to be lowered and, in the event of the palhum or confirmation being refused, German archbishops and bishops are to be free to exercise their office under the protection of the emperor ; with the Church tribunals of first and second instance ( episcopal and metropolitan ) the nuncios at Cologne are not to interfere, and, though appeal to Rome is allowed under certain national safe-guards, the opinion is expressed that it would be better to set up in each archdiocese a final court of appeal representing the provincial synod ; finally the emperor is prayed to use his influence with the pope to secure the assembly of a national council in order to remove the grievances left unredressed by the council of Trent.
As the counter-attack progressed German resistance stiffened ; Kirponos, the commander of the Southwestern Front, initially issued instructions to cease offensive operations and then argued with Chief of General Staff G. K. Zhukov, when Zhukov insisted that the counter-attack continue.

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