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Andronikos and III
Alexios III Angelos was the second son of Andronikos Angelos and Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa.
Andronikos III Palaiologos, Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus (; 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341 ) was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341, after being rival emperor since 1321.
Andronikos III was the son of Michael IX Palaiologos and Rita of Armenia ( renamed Maria ).
The elder Andronikos disowned his grandson, whereupon Andronikos III fled the capital and rallied his supporters around him in Thrace.
Effective administrative authority during the reign of Andronikos III was wielded by his megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos, while the Emperor enjoyed himself hunting or waging war.
The subsequent years witnessed the gradual extinction of Byzantine rule in Asia Minor, as Orhan of the Ottoman Turks, who had already defeated Andronikos III at Pelekanos in 1329, took Nicaea in 1331 and Nicomedia in 1337.
Earlier Andronikos III had effected the recovery of the islands of Lesbos and Chios from Martino Zaccaria in 1329 ( although the island remained under Benedetto III Zaccaria until 1330 ) and of Phocaea in 1334 from the last Genoese governor Domenico Cattaneo.
Despite these troubles Andronikos III secured the extension of Byzantine control over Thessaly in 1333 and Epirus in 1337, by taking advantage of succession crises in these principalities.
Andronikos III reorganized the Byzantine navy ( consisted of 10 ships by 1332 ) and reformed the judicial system by forming a panel of four universal judges whom he designated " Universal Justices of the Romans ".
The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited Constantinople towards the end of 1332, mentions in his memoirs having met Andronikos III.
In the summer of 1329, Andronikos III launched a relief attempt which culminated in a defeat at the Battle of Pelekanon on 10 June and in 1331, the city fell.
Not wishing to see Nicomedia or the other few remaining forts in Asia Minor suffer the same fate, Andronikos III sought to pay off the Ottomans with tribute — the Ottomans did not stop at this and seized Nicomedia as well in 1337.
Andronikos III died at Constantinople, aged 44, in 1341.
Andronikos III married as his second wife, in 1326, with Anna of Savoy.
als: Andronikos III.
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Andronikos and was
Their party was defeated ( 2 May 1182 ), but Andronikos Komnenos, a first cousin of Emperor Manuel, took advantage of these disorders to aim at the crown, entered Constantinople, where he was received with almost divine honours, and overthrew the government.
Andronikos was now formally proclaimed as co-emperor before the crowd on the terrace of the Church of Christ of the Chalkè, and not long afterwards, on the pretext that divided rule was injurious to the Empire, he caused Alexios II to be strangled with a bow-string ( October 1183 ).
His younger brother Isaac was threatened with execution under orders of their first-cousin once-removed Andronikos I Komnenos on September 11, 1185.
* Eirene Angelina, who married ( 1 ) Andronikos Kontostephanos, and ( 2 ) Alexios Palaiologos, by whom she was the grandmother of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos.
Andronikos was born in Constantinople on his grandfather's 38th birthday.
Andronikos III's attempt to make up for this setback by annexing Bulgarian Thrace failed in 1332, when he was defeated by the new Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Alexander at Rousokastron.
Yet none of this was due to a lack of leadership on Andronikos ' part and his reign could be said to end before the Byzantine Empire's position became untenable due to the ensuing civil war which consumed the empire's remaining resources on Andronikos's death.
Andronikos II Palaiologos () ( 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332 ), Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1282 to 1328.
Andronikos II Palaiologos was born at Nicaea.
Sole emperor from 1282, Andronikos II immediately repudiated his father's unpopular Church union with the Papacy ( which he had been forced to support while his father was still alive ), but was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310.
Andronikos II was also plagued by economic difficulties and during his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously while the state treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue ( in nominal coins ) that it had done previously.
In spite of the resolution of problems in Europe, Andronikos II was faced with the collapse of the Byzantine frontier in Asia Minor, despite the successful, but short, governorships of Alexios Philanthropenos and John Tarchaneiotes.
By the end of Andronikos II's reign, much of Bithynia was in the hands of the Ottoman Turks of Osman I and his son and heir Orhan.
In 1328 Andronikos III entered Constantinople in triumph and Andronikos II was forced to abdicate.
Constantine was forced to become a monk by his nephew Andronikos III Palaiologos.
Andronikos I Komnenos ( or Andronicus I Comnenus, ; c. 1118 – September 12, 1185 ) was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185 ).

Andronikos and first
From there he waged an intermittent civil war against his grandfather, which first secured him recognition of his post as co-emperor, and ultimately led to the deposition of Andronikos II in 1328.
On 8 November 1273 Andronikos II married as his first wife Anna of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, with whom he had two sons:
They were well received by the king, George III of Georgia, whose anonymous sister had probably been Andronikosfirst wife.
The majority of these areas were under Byzantine rule and he won his first battle, at Pelekanon, against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos.
* Eirene Dukaina Komnene Laskarina, who married first the general Andronikos Palaiologos and then John III Doukas Vatatzes
Andronikos first dealt with unrest due to attacks by Albanians and then turned his interest to the Despotate.
Under the first Palaiologan emperor, Michael VIII, the army's role took an increasingly offensive role whilst the naval forces of the Empire, weakened since the days of Andronikos I Komnenos, were boosted to include thousands of skilled sailors and some 80 ships.
After Manuel I's reign the Komnenos dynasty fell into conspiracies and plots like many of their ancestors ( and the various contenders within the family sought power and often succeeded in overthrowing the preceding kinsman ); Alexios II, the first Komnenos to ascend as a minor, ruled for three years and his conqueror and successor Andronikos I ruled for two, overthrown by the Angelos family under Isaac II who was dethroned and blinded by his own brother Alexios III.
Their first ' emperor ', named Alexios I, was the grandson of Emperor Andronikos I.
Andronikos was a first cousin of Manuel and was known to have harbored imperial ambitions for himself.
Andronikos had previously been married ( his first wife's name is unknown ).
Andronikos had two sons by his first wife ; he also had a young son and daughter from his affair with Theodora.
A few years later in 1166, Theodora's kinsman Andronikos, a first cousin of her father, visited the kingdom and was named lord of Beirut by Baldwin's brother and successor Amalric I. Andronikos invited Theodora to Beirut, and the two eloped to Damascus, or as William says, Andronikos abducted her in collusion with Nūr al-Dīn.
In 1284 George Terter I concluded a new treaty with Andronikos II Palaiologos, and retrieved his first wife, while Theodore Svetoslav at first remained a hostage.
The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos at first refused to receive him, perhaps fearing complications with the Mongols, and George Terter was kept waiting in wretched conditions in the vicinity of Adrianople.

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